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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 17, No.1 Jan. 2020

Kok-Eng Tan, Melissa Ng Lee Yen Abdullah, Amelia Abdullah, Norlida Ahmad, Ekkapon Phairot, Umiati Jawas & Ayu Liskinasih
 
Abderrahim Benlahcene, Rosna Awang-Hashim & Amrita Kaur
 
Chee Leong Lim, Habibah Ab Jalil, Aini Marina Ma'rof & Wan Zuhainis Saad
 
Anbareen Jan, Moses Stephens Samuel & Ali Shafiq
 
Sampan Thinwiangthong,  Colleen M. Eddy & MaitreeInprasitha
 
Donnie Adams, Mabel Tan Hwee Joo, Bambang Sumintono & Oh Siew Pei
 
Norzalina Noor, Dahlia Janan & Mahzan Arshad
 
Husna Faredza Mohamed Redzwan, Khairul Azam Bahari, Anida Sarudin & Zulkifli Osman
 

INDONESIAN, MALAYSIAN AND THAI SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WILLINGNESS TO COMMUNICATE IN ENGLISH
1Kok-Eng Tan, 2Melissa Ng Lee Yen Abdullah, 3Amelia Abdullah, 4Norlida Ahmad,5Ekkapon Phairot, 6Umiati Jawas & 7Ayu Liskinasih
1-4 School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
5Songkhla Rajabhat University, Thailand
6-7Department of English Language and Literature Universitas Kanjuruhan Malang, Indonesia 
1Corresponding author: ketan@usm.my 
 
 
ABSTRACT
 
Purpose – This quantitative study explored willingness to communicate (WTC) across two settings, ESL in Malaysia, and EFL in Indonesia and Thailand. Participants’ WTC levels were measured and communicative situations in which participants were almost always willing and almost never willing to communicate in English were identified.
 
Method – Convenience sampling was used to select the three countries, four secondary schools and 42 intact classes from Years 7 to 10. Two schools were in Malaysia, while one school each was in Indonesia and Thailand. A total of 1038 participants, consisting of 291 Malaysians, 325 Indonesians and 422 Thais took part in the study. The instrument used was an adapted questionnaire measuring WTC inside and outside the English classroom.
 
Findings – The major findings were: 1) Situations in which students were almost never willing to communicate in English were mainly found outside the classroom; 2) Students were almost always willing to communicate in English in brief, predictable situations requiring the use of set phrases; 3) ESL students had a higher level of WTC than EFL students; and 4) WTC inside the classroom was significantly higher than WTC outside the classroom.
 
Significance – The findings have implications for ESL/EFL classroom instruction. English teachers remain the main interlocutors in increasing WTC in the classroom. They also need to bridge the gap between the classroom and the outside world by preparing students for real social situations. This is consistent with the situation-specific aspect of WTC in the heuristic model proposed by MacIntyre, Clément, Dörnyei, & Noels (1998).
 
Keywords: ESL, EFL, interlocutors, secondary school, willingness to communicate
 
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PERSONAL BEST GOALS:  DO THEY MEDIATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER AUTONOMY SUPPORT AND STUDENT ENGAGEMENT?
1Abderrahim Benlahcene, Rosna Awang-Hashim & Amrita Kaur
School of Education and Modern Languages, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: abderrahim_b@ahsgs.uum.edu.my
 
 
ABSTRACT
 
Purpose ˗ The role of teacher autonomy support (TAS) is central to students’ engagement. However, there is a scarcity of empirical evidence on the mediating role of personal best (PB) goals between autonomy support and student engagement. Hence, in this research we examined the extent to which TAS could impact cognitive, behavioural and emotional engagement with the mediating role of PB goals among undergraduate students.
 
Methodology ˗ A cross-sectional research design was applied.  A total of 266 undergraduate students from a large government university located in northern Malaysia participated in this research. The Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Personal Best Scale were used to measure the students’ perception of TAS and their PB goals respectively, while the Engagement Versus Disaffection with Learning measurement scale and the Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire were used to collect data on cognitive, behavioural and emotional engagement. Structural Equation Modelling using AMOS 23 was adopted to test the hypothesized relationships.
 
Findings ˗ The results of the study support our postulated model, showing that TAS is related with student engagement aspects through the full mediating role of PB goals.
 
Significance ˗ These results augment the present understanding of the self-determination theory motivation mediation model by highlighting that creating a conducive learning environment that facilitates self-determined behaviours among students will nurture PB goals and enhance engagement, which will be beneficial for teaching and learning processes in education.
 
Keywords: autonomy support, personal best (PB) goals, student engagement, higher education
 
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SELF-REGULATED LEARNING AS A MEDIATOR IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PEER LEARNING AND ONLINE LEARNING SATISFACTION: A STUDY OF A PRIVATE UNIVERSITY IN MALAYSIA 
1,2Chee Leong Lim, 2Habibah Ab Jalil, 2Aini Marina Ma'rof & 2Wan Zuhainis Saad
1e-Learning Academy, Taylor’s University, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia 
Corresponding author: cheeleong.lim@taylors.edu.my
 
 
ABSTRACT
Purpose – Students’ ability to self-regulate their learning and to learn effectively with peers are indicators of success in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution. This study investigated whether peer learning helps to influence online learning satisfaction in the presence of self-regulated learning (SRL) as a mediating variable.
 
Methodology - The study adopted a correlational research design to examine the possibility of relationships between these variables. The sample was selected based on proportional stratified sampling method. Of the 409 respondents, only 347 were valid for data analysis, forming a usable case of 84.84%. The instrument used was an online questionnaire adapted from pre-existing reliable multi-item instruments. Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was used to examine the relationship between the constructs in the hypothesised model, while Bootstrapping test was applied to examine the mediation effects of SRL. 
 
Findings - From the direct effect of the SEM analysis, students’ ability to learn with peers was found to have significantly influenced their SRL strategies, while SRL strategies were found to have a positive and statistically significant effect on online learning satisfaction. Moreover, the findings from the Bootstrapping test concurred that the influence of peer learning on online learning satisfaction was fully mediated by SRL.
 
Significance - By understanding the mediator roles played by SRL, this study hopes to provide insights for universities and course instructors to make pedagogically informed design decisions by integrating appropriate SRL strategies in the development of blended learning courses. 
 
Keywords: Self-regulated learning, peer learning, online learning satisfaction, blended learning, mediating effect.
 

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PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES OF LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ENGLISH TEACHERS: A CASE STUDY OF A MALAYSIAN PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
1Anbareen Jan, 2Moses Stephens Samuel & 3Ali Shafiq
1,2School of Education, Taylors University Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
3Faculty of Business and Law, Taylors University Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: jananbareen@sd.taylors.edu.my 
 
ABSTRACT
 
Purpose - Internationalization of education has made it important to have not only a command of English as a global language, but also of Languages Other Than English (LOTEs), which can be a second, national or heritage language. This narrative inquiry explored LOTE teachers’ perspectives on their use of English and other pedagogical practices for teaching LOTE to international students.
 
Methodology - Narratives of three language teachers from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds, teaching French, Korean and Mandarin at a private university in Malaysia were recorded. Their      discussion addressed key issues in teaching LOTE such as teaching strategies, use of technology and the importance of using English for teaching LOTEs.  Data was analysed using Nvivo, applying Saldana’s (2016) coding technique, consisting of structural, descriptive and values coding.  48 codes emerged during the first cycle coding, which were placed under nine categories in the second and final coding process.
 
Findings - Data revealed that for achieving practical outcomes, technologically integrated teaching is an alternative to traditional teaching practices. Further, teachers’ narratives also showed the importance of English in LOTE teaching, owing to the internationalization of education.
 
Significance – The study explored LOTE pedagogy through the narratives of teachers, who are key stakeholders. The findings will help LOTE teachers reflect on their own teaching practices, and familiarize them with current pedagogy, including technology integration. They would also be useful in other contexts where LOTE is offered as a foreign language.
 
Keywords: Languages Other Than English, pedagogical strategies, technology integrated classrooms, teacher narratives

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MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ ABILITIES IN DEVELOPING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT AFTER THE INTRODUCTION OF LESSON STUDY AND OPEN APPROACH INNOVATIONS
1Sampan Thinwiangthong, 2Colleen M. Eddy & 3MaitreeInprasitha
1,3Facultyof Education, Khon Kaen University,Khon Kaen, Thailand
2Collegeof Education,University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
1Correspondingauthor: sampan@kku.ac.th
 
ABSTRACT
 
Purpose – The main purpose of this study was to examine mathematics teachers’ abilities in developing formative assessments when teaching algebraic reasoning after utilizing two innovations: lesson study and open approach.
 
Methodology – A single group quasi-experimental research design was employed in two mathematics classes in a school in Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. The target group was all the 11 mathematics teachers, who were pre-tested, then post-tested afterthe lesson study and open approach training. This was followed bytheir participation in setting up a lesson study group and conducting 10 lesson study cycles involving two research participants who were teaching two selected classes. The instruments were a questionnaire, the Assess Today rubric, interview protocols, 10 lesson plans, field notes, classroom observation video recordings, and students’ written work. The AssessToday rubric was the main instrumentwritten work. The AssessToday rubric was the main instrumentused to determine the ability level of the mathematics teachers indeveloping formative assessment in terms of seven components,namely learning targets, question quality, nature of questioning, selfevaluation,observation of student affect, instructional adjustment,and evidence of learning.
 
Results – The pre-test and post-test results showed an improvementin the mathematics teachers’ understanding about formativeassessment, the methods used in formative assessment, and how theycould use the data from the formative assessment while they wereimplementing the two innovations. In addition, the AssessToday rubric showed that both mathematics teachers were progressinggradually from novice, apprentice to practitioner level in theirabilities in developing formative assessment after the 10 cycles ofinnovation practices in all the seven components. The results implythat the mathematics teachers showed vast improvement in their abilities in developing formative assessment after they implemented the lesson study and open approach innovations in their teaching.
 
Significance – The results contribute significantly to knowledge about the usefulness of the lesson study and open approach innovations in enhancing mathematics teachers’ abilities in developing formative assessment.
 
Keywords: AssessToday rubric; formative assessment abilities; lesson study; open approach; mathematics teachers.
 
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BLENDED LEARNING ENGAGEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A DIFFERENTIAL ITEM FUNCTIONING ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ BACKGROUNDS
1Donnie Adams, 2Mabel Tan Hwee Joo, 1Bambang Sumintono & 3Oh Siew Pei
1Facultyof Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia
2&3UCSI College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: donnieadams@um.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT
 
Purpose – Digital technology has transformed teaching and learning in such a way that it seems imperative lecturers and institutions need to adapt and adopt a blended learning model of instruction across disciplines. However, there is a scarcity of studies to determine the degree of students’ engagement on blended or online university courses. The purpose of the study is to investigate students’ cognitive engagement, emotional engagement, and behavioural engagement in a blended learning model of instruction as well as specifically assess their engagement based on demographic factors such as age, gender, field of study, ethnicity, and type of institution in leading Malaysian public and private higher education institutions.
 
Methodology – A non-experimental quantitative research design was employed in this study. 462 undergraduate and postgraduate students were sampled using the Blended Learning Readiness Engagement Questionnaire©. Subsequently, WINSTEPS Rasch model measurement software was used to determine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Descriptive statistics and differential item functioning (DIF) were conducted to assess students’ engagement in a blended learning model of instruction with the latter analysing specifically on student’s demographic factors such as age, gender, field of study, ethnicity, and type of institution.
 
Findings – Findings show high levels of engagement in blended learning activities among students in both public and private higher education institutions based on their cognitive, emotional, and behavioural engagement processes. Findings also indicates differences in students’ engagement based on demographic factors such as age, gender, field of study, ethnicity, and type of institution.
 
Significance –The findings of this study will help lecturers reflect on their own teaching practices in this era of technology advancement where a blended learning model of instruction are given increased prioritisation and proliferation. Implications and recommendations for future research in blended learning practices are presented.
 
Keywords: Student engagement, Blended learning, higher education institution, Rasch model.
 
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STUDENTS’ CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS IN AN INQUIRY-BASED FLIPPED CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT
1Rolando Mango Tan, 2Rosanelia T. Yangco, 3Elenita N. Que
1UP National Institute for Science andMathematics Education Development
2,3University of the Philippines College of Education
1Corresponding author: rmtan67@gmail.com
 
ABSTRACT
 

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of an Inquiry-based Flipped classroom model on the conceptual understanding and science process skills of junior high school students in the Philippines.

Method: A two-group pretest/post-test design was conducted on 55 Grade 9 students for the study. One group received instruction using the flipped classroom format while the other group serving as control was taught in the conventional format. A Conceptual Understanding Test (CUT) and a Science Process Skills Test (SPST) were used to measure the impact of instruction on the two groups. Independent samples t-test was used to determine if there was a significant difference between the groups while paired samples t-test was conducted on both groups to determine if the groups improved significantly after a 7-week intervention. Linear regression was performed to determine if science process skills was a positive predictor of conceptual understanding.

Findings: Inquiry-based flipped classroom did not make students perform better than the non-flipped inquiry-based learning environment in the Conceptual Understanding Test (CUT) and Science Process Skills Test (SPST) except on one biology topic (non-Mendelian Genetics) where the Flipped Inquiry Group scored significantly higher than the control in the CUT. Students’ science process skills positively predicted their conceptual understanding in biology.

Significance: Inquiry–based flipped classroom can be as effective as the non-flipped inquiry-based instruction in improving students’ conceptual understanding and science process skills but can be made even more effective depending on the content, the manner the content is uploaded and the choice of LMS for uploading the online content. The study also showed the importance of science process skills in enhancing students’ conceptual understanding in biology.

Keywords: Flipped classroom, conceptual understanding, science process skills.

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VALIDASI TERHADAP RUBRIK SEBAGAI ALAT PENGUKURAN PENULISAN ILMIAH MELALUI PENSKORAN KENDIRI PELAJAR TERHADAP TUGASAN
(VALIDATION OF RUBRICS AS AN ACADEMIC WRITING MEASUREMENT TOOL THROUGH STUDENTS’ SELF-SCORING OF ASSIGNMENTS) 
1Norzalina Noor, 2Dahlia Janan & 3Mahzan Arshad
Faculty of Language and Communication
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
2Corressponding author: dahlia@fbk.upsi.edu.my
ABSTRAK
 
Tujuan - Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melihat perubahan kualiti penulisan ilmiah pelajar dan ketekalan penskoran antara pemeriksa dengan pelajar bagi memvalidasikan rubrik sebagai alat pengukuran penulisan ilmiah.
 
Metodologi - Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah praeksperimen kumpulan tunggal dengan persampelan kebarangkalian. Dua orang pensyarah dari universiti tempatan telah memberi skor terhadap 122 penulisan ilmiah pelajar daripada dua kumpulan berbeza dengan menggunakan rubrik yang sama. Kaedah intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Limit of Agreement (LOA) dan standard error of measurements (SEM) telah digunakan untuk melihat persetujuan antara skor pelajar dengan pemeriksa.
 
Dapatan – Dapatan menunjukkan perubahan kualiti dalam penulisan ilmiah pelajar antara draf awal dengan draf akhir berdasarkan aspek peningkatan penskoran kendiri pelajar. Selanjutnya, data menunjukkan aspek persetujuan mempunyai kebolehpercayaan yang agak rendah, walaupun begitu masih dianggap memuaskan dengan nilai LOA yang agak sekata.
 
Kepentingan - Kajian ini penting kepada pelajar untuk terlibat dalam proses penilaian bagi menambah kefahaman mereka tentang kriteria dan kehendak pensyarah terutama bagi kursus yang penilaiannya bersifat subjektif. 
 
Kata Kunci: Penskoran kendiri, rubrik, intraclass, penilaian hasil, penulisan ilmiah.
 
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ABSTRACT
 
Purpose - This study explored changes in the quality of students’ academic writing and the consistency of scoring between students and examiners, to validate rubrics as a measurement tool for academic writing. 
 
Methodology – A pre-experimental single-group design with probability sampling was employed. Two lecturers from a Malaysian university scored academic writing samples of 122 students from two different groups using the same rubric. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), limit of agreement (LOA) and standard error of measurements (SEM) were used to examine the agreement between examiners’ and students’ scores. 
 
Findings – It was found that there was a change in the quality of students’ academic writing between the initial and final draft, based on the increase in students’ self-assessment scores.  The data further indicated that in terms of agreement, reliability was rather low, although still considered satisfactory, with evenly low LOA values.  
 
Importance - This study points to the importance of engaging students in the assessment process to increase their understanding of assessment criteria and expectations of lecturers, especially for courses with subjective forms of assessment.
 
Keywords: Self-assessment, rubrics, intraclass, output assessment, academic writing.


STRATEGI PENGUKURAN UPAYA BERBAHASA MENERUSI KESANTUNAN BERBAHASA SEBAGAI INDIKATOR PROFESIONALISME GURU PELATIH BERASASKAN SKALA MORFOFONETIK, SOSIOLINGUISTIK DAN SOSIOPRAGMATIK
(LINGUISTIC POLITENESS AS AN INDICATOR OF TRAINEE TEACHER PROFESSIONALISM:  A LANGUAGE ABILTY MEASUREMENT STRATEGY BASED ON MORPHOPHONETIC, SOCIOLINGUISTIC AND SOCIOPRAGMATIC SCALES)
1Husna Faredza Mohamed Redzwan, Khairul Azam Bahari, Anida Sarudin & Zulkifli Osman
Jabatan Bahasa dan Kesusasteraan Melayu, Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia.
1Corresponding author: husna.faredza@fbk.upsi.edu.my
 
 
ABSTRAK
 
Tujuan - Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti upaya berbahasa menerusi penggunaan Bahasa Melayu Tinggi dan Berbudaya (BMTB) dalam kalangan guru pelatih sebagai ciri kesantunan yang dapat diukur menerusi Indikator Profesionalisme Guru Pelatih berdasarkan skala morfofonetik, sosiolinguistik dan sosiopragmatik.
 
Metodologi - Sembilan orang guru pelatih Bahasa Melayu daripada lima buah sekolah menengah terpilih di negeri Perak dijadikan responden. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif yang memberikan kefahaman mendalam berkaitan dengan upaya BMTB dalam kalangan guru pelatih berasaskan senarai semak pencerapan pengajaran dan pemudahcaraan (PdPc) yang dibina berpandukan penentuan skala morfofonetik; skala sosiolinguistik; dan skala sosiopragmatik mengikut kerangka konseptual Brown dan Levinson (1987). Pencerapan dilaksanakan terhadap sembilan orang guru pelatih dengan menganalisis rakaman sesi PdPc mereka yang berdurasi 540 minit dan telah ditranskripsikan.
 
Dapatan - Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa masih terdapat ketidakpatuhan aspek morfofonetik terutamanya dalam mengartikulasikan perkataan-perkataan tertentu dalam bahasa Melayu dengan menggunakan sebutan baku dalam kalangan guru pelatih. Selain itu, ketidakpatuhan mereka terhadap peraturan sosiolinguistik juga dikesan, iaitu masih terdapat penggunaan bahasa yang kurang rapi kerana mengandungi percampuran kod. Ketidakpatuhan aspek morfofonetik dan sosiolinguistik ini perlu ditangani dengan baik agar upaya berbahasa dan tahap profesionalisme guru pelatih dapat ditingkatkan. Dari aspek sosiopragmatik pula, kesemua 15 substrategi kesantunan berbahasa di bawah Strategi Kesantunan Positif Brown dan Levinson (1987) didapati telah diamalkan oleh guru pelatih yang menunjukkan bahawa mereka memiliki upaya berbahasa yang positif dan memenuhi indikator profesionalisme sebagai bakal pendidik.
 
Signifikan - Kajian ini menyumbang kepada saranan membina indikator profesionalisme guru pelatih UPSI khususnya dan bakal pendidik umumnya dalam perspektif upaya BMTB bagi mengukur amalan kesantunan berbahasa, khususnya dalam bidang Bahasa Melayu semasa mereka menjalani latihan mengajar.
 
 
Kata Kunci: Upaya berbahasa, Bahasa Melayu Tinggi dan Berbudaya (BMTB), Kesantunan Berbahasa, Indikator Profesionalisme Guru Pelatih, Morfofonetik, Sosiolinguistik, Sosiopragmatik.
 
 
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ABSTRACT
 
Purpose - The aim of this study was to identify Malaysian trainee teachers’ language ability through their use of high and cultured Malay language (HCML) as a politeness feature, as measured by morphophonetic, sociolinguistic and sociopragmatic scales in a Trainee Teacher Professionalism Indicator.

Methodology - Respondents were nine Malay language trainee teachers from five selected secondary schools in the state of Perak.  A qualitative approach was used to gain in-depth understanding of their HCML ability.  A teaching observation and facilitation checklist incorporating morphophonetic, sociolinguistic and sociopragmatic scales was developed based on Brown and Levinson's (1987) conceptual framework.  Data was collected during classroom observations of the nine trainee teachers.  Recordings of these sessions totalling 540 minutes were transcribed and analysed.

Findings - The study found some disregard for morphophonetic aspects of language use, especially in articulating particular words in standard Malay pronunciation. There was also evidence of inattention to sociolinguistic rules, i.e., looseness due to code mixing. These non-adherence issues should be addressed in an appropriate manner so that both the language ability and level of professionalism of trainee teachers can be enhanced.  In the sociopragmatic aspect, however, all 15 linguistic politeness sub-strategies of Brown and Levinson’s Positive Politeness Strategy (1987) were found to be practiced, indicating that the teacher trainees’ language ability was positive, and fulfilled the professionalism indicator.

Significance This study contributes towards the development of a teacher professionalism indicator for trainee teachers in the researchers’ own institution and elsewhere from the perspective of HCML ability, that may be used to evaluate linguistic politeness during teaching practice, especially among Malay language trainee teachers.

Keywords: Language ability, high and cultured Malay language, linguistic politeness, trainee teachers’ professionalism indicator, morphophonetic, sociolinguistic, sociopragmatic.