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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 16, No.1 June 2019

Chockalingam Aravind Vaithilingam, Reynato Andal Gamboa & Siow Chun Lim
Raja Maznah Raja Hussain & Khalid Khamis Al Saadi
Jason James Turner, Puteri Sofia Amirnuddin & Harmahinder Singh Iqbal Singh

Chamila Nishanthi Edward, David Asirvatham & Md Gapar Md Johar 


Strategizing Inclusivity in Teaching Diverse Learners in Higher Education

Rosna Awang-Hashim, Amrita Kaur & Nena P. Valdez


A Meta Analysis on Effective conditions to Offer Animation Based Teaching Style

Rajesh Kumar Kaushal & Surya Narayan Panda


English Morphosyntactic Performance of A High-Functioning ASD Child: Implications on ELT

Yusniza Mohd Yusoff, Khazriyati Salehuddin, Imran Ho Abdullah & Hasnah Toran


Enhancing Science Achievement Utilising an Integrated STEM Approach

Akawo Angwal Yaki, Rohaida Mohd Saat, Renuka V. Sathasivam & Hutkemri Zulnaidi


Teachers’ Practices in the Acquisition of English by Asian Immigrant English Language Learners

Mazlina Che Mustafa, Nor Mashitah Md. Radzi, Abdul Halim Masnan, Juppri Bacotang, Zainiah Mohamed Isa, Zaharah Osman & Azila Alias
Marini Kasim & Nor Shafrin Ahmad

 Empowered Pedagogy: Catching Up with the Future
1Chockalingam Aravind Vaithilingam, 2Reynato Andal Gamboa & 3Siow Chun Lim
1&2School of Engineering, Taylor’s University, Malaysia
3Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Multimedia University,Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
Purpose - Recently, a layered and lateral framework that provides opportunities for students to design the pedagogy that creates a broad based, flexible and personalized learning is introduced by the Taylor’s University School of Engineering. This approach creates avenue for the students to design their own curriculum within the framework that is developed with inputs from the industry. The framework, the key components, and the tracking of the performance to align the set outcomes through assessment tool is presented.
Methodology - My Study Plan (MySP) a macro-enabled software is used to develop a four-year tier model for the students to design the curriculum with the help of a mentor at the start of the programme. Student’s learning is monitored on a semester-based learning analytics process implementing the Programme Outcomes (PO) Scorecard. The August 2018 cohort of the Electrical and Electronic Engineering programme is used to pilot this pedagogy.
Findings - Currently the PO measurement is done for the graduating student and focus only on the effectiveness of the programme. The Programme Outcome Assessment Review (POAS) used in this study to monitor the MySP the continual monitoring each semester rather towards the end of graduation. Initial simulation of existing PO attainment record of students suggest that this can generate interest towards the learning progress on a semester basis.
Significance - The successful adoption sees an effectiveness in the long run in developing graduates through the continual monitoring of the programme outcomes. The graduating students carry the PO scorecard that complements a second transcript for value addition for their studies. Prospective employers can use the PO scorecard as a metric for initial recruitment purposes, a measure for the soft skills achievements of the applicant.
Keywords: broad-based education, personalized learning, empowered pedagogy, humanistic, IR 4.0, outcome-based education, programme outcomes.
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Students as Designers of E-book for Authentic Assessment

1Raja Maznah Raja Hussain & Khalid Khamis Al Saadi
Department of Instructional learning and Technologies, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
1Corresponding author:

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the elements that determine students’ success as designers of an e-book by means of an authentic assessment in a collaborative learning environment. A total of 11 English Language Teaching (ELT) postgraduate students were involved as designers, writers and peer reviewers of the e-book project.

Methodology – Data was gathered based on a qualitative methodological approach, via face-to-face discussions, WhatsApp groups, Moodle classes and reflections from students’ e-portfolios. The data was analyzed using content analysis procedures where it was read carefully to understand emerging themes. It was then coded and labeled manually in relation to the aims of the study and its theoretical framework.

Findings – The analysis suggested that the students had positive experiences where they became self-publishers while engaged in designing learning experiences via integrating technology. The use of authentic assessments enabled them to develop teamwork, to become motivated and self-directed learners with autonomy.

Significance – The outcome of this research will help course designers and program developers to integrate authentic assessments that are relevant to the current needs of students. 

Keywords: Authentic assessment, design thinking, e-book design, technology enhanced learning.

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University Legal Learning Spaces Effectiveness in Developing Employability Skills of Future Law graduates

1Jason James Turner, Puteri Sofia Amirnuddin & Harmahinder Singh Iqbal Singh
Faculty of Business & Law, Taylors University, Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:

Purpose – The objective of this study was to examine the role of legal learning space in a Malaysian university and how this space impacts on law students’ preparation for the employment market. This study comes in response to the issue of inexperienced graduates, who lack appropriate employability skills for the world of work, commonly referred to as the ‘graduate skills gap’.

Methodology – This study used an online survey (accessed via a QR code) on 256 law students at a university in Malaysia. The sample size comprised 213 currently enrolled students and 43 alumni, with the former cohort representing 95% of the total law student population at the university and the latter representing 17% of the total alumni population.

Findings – The study found that students, regardless of their year of study, did not consider that legal learning space at the university replicated real life legal practice but thought that the space prepared them for employment. The students felt that some legal learning space was better than others in developing their employability skills. Despite this they enjoyed interacting in the space collectively and felt that it helped them improve their teamwork, communication and soft skills. It also revealed that the perceptions of legal learning space could be improved with better management of staff and student expectations.

Significance – This study was one of few studies, which investigated the role of learning space in developing law students’ employability skills set. The findings helped to consolidate existing research in the area of graduate skills gap, the development of graduate employability skills, and in advancing research on identifying students’ perception of learning space and the specific skills students felt they had developed while engaged in this space. This study will be of particular interest to both employers and universities as they seek to manage each other’s expectations and pursue a more practice-based learning curriculum. 

Keywords: Legal learning space, law students, graduate skills gap, employability skills.

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The Impact of Teaching Oriental Music using Blended Learning Approach: An Experimental Study

1Chamila Nishanthi Edward, 2David Asirvatham &  3Md Gapar Md Johar
1&3Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Malaysia
2Taylors University, Subang, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:

Purpose -  The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the impact of teaching Oriental Music using Blended Learning (BL) approach for the students of senior secondary level in Sri Lanka specifically focusing on their achievement on required competencies of Oriental Music at Ordinary Level. The study analyzes the academic performance of students with detailed comparison of BL environment and traditional learning environment. Authors propose the application of BL approach to teach Oriental Music and study its impact on improvement of students’ competency. The study conducted with the application of a mixed instructional design model of objectivist and constructivist approaches for the design of the blended learning course in a student centred learning environment.

Methodology -  The study was directed by using true experimental study design with pretest and posttest control groups. BL was applied to the experimental group and the traditional instruction method was applied to control group. 9 schools from Colombo district were randomly selected for the experimental and control groups covering all the three existing school types of Sri Lanka. The study group consisted of 360 students of Grade 10 and Grade 11 who has been studying Oriental Music as a subject for General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level. To analyze the data Descriptive statistics, Paired samples t test, Independent samples t test were utilized.

Findings  - The findings of the experiment indicated that students who has studied Oriental Music under BL strategy showed a significant improvement in their music academic performances after the intervention. The mean post-test of the experimental group was 71.75 which is significantly higher than the mean control group which was 52.07. The mean difference was 19.68 1.91. Hence, there is a statistically significant increase in the performance of students who studied Oriental Music under blended learning. Thus, it is clearly evident that the blended instruction was effective.

Significance -  This study indicated a positive platform to mould and cater the entire teaching learning process by introducing BL strategy to Sri Lankan secondary education system and fulfilled an existing research gap by utilizing BL to teach highly traditional abstract art. Results of the study contributes to the curriculum designing field with novel ideas to adapt blended instructions to teach secondary level students effectively.

Keywords:  Blended Learning, Instructional Design Model, Objectivist and Constructivist Mixed Approach, Secondary Education, Technology Based Music Education.

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Strategizing Inclusivity in Teaching Diverse Learners in Higher Education

1Rosna Awang-Hashim, 2Amrita Kaur & 3Nena P.Valdez
1&2School of Education and Modern Languages,  Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
3President University, Indonesia
1Corresponding author:

Purpose  - As the classrooms in higher education are growing increasingly diverse, it is imperative that higher education practitioners build a responsive learning environment for diverse learners to optimize their potential. Continuing professional development programmes (CPD) are central to such strategic approaches that equip educators with essential knowledge and skills to handle diversity related issues, achieve equity and increase participation by students. Therefore, the present study aims to examine strategies used by higher education practitioners to address diversity and inclusion in teaching and learning.

Methodology  - Participants were nine academicians (6 males and 3 females) who emerged from natural retention along the iterative cycles on Community of Practice (CoP) participation. The present study adopted CoP as the theoretical lens and a methodological tool to understand what strategies higher education practitioners devise for their inclusive teaching and learning practices in response to the diversity related challenges. The data was collected through a series of observations and reflective journals. Initially, thematic analysis techniques were used to reduce data into two categories- strategies and challenges. Later, according to the prevalence and frequency count the strategies were analysed against the challenges reported and finally the strategies were reduced into major themes.

Findings  - Three major themes emerged that report the inclusive strategies conceived by the participants. The themes were - Inclusive/differentiated assessment which suggested that creating differentiated assessment that are inclusive in nature and can provide equal opportunity to every student to participate. The second theme, Motivation and Goal Strategies, revealed that students were found to be diverse in their goals for learning, hence, a variety of motivational strategies such as including students’ voice, providing them a clear rationale for studying and fostering relatedness were deemed suitable to address those differences. The final theme, inclusive pedagogy suggests a variety of accommodations to be made in pedagogy such as integrating technology, adopting culturally responsive material and initiating collaborative learning to address students’ differences.

Significance  -The findings have implications for faculty professional development, classroom teaching practices for inclusive pedagogy in higher education institutions and use of CoP as a framework for such developments.

Keywords:  Diversity, Higher education, Teaching and learning, CoP, Inclusion.

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A Meta Analysis on Effective conditions to Offer Animation Based Teaching Style

1Rajesh Kumar Kaushal & Surya Narayan Panda
Chitkara University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Chitkara University, Punjab, India
1Corresponding author:


Purpose – The aim of this study is to find in which conditions animation based teaching style for example teaching through 2D or 3D animations or animated diagrams leads to the better learning outcome. To achieve this purpose, we compared these two conditions (i) animation based teaching style is effective when offered to high spatial ability learners versus low spatial ability learners (ii) animation based teaching style is effective when offered to high prior knowledge learners versus low prior knowledge learners.

Methodology – The data of 37 experiments from 22 different published studies were collected to identify the effective conditions. The results were obtained by conducting a meta-analysis. Animations can be effective for a wide range of subject disciplines and age group. Therefore, the present study incorporated published empirical data from different subject disciplines and age groups.

Findings – The weighted mean effect size of HSA and LSA groups were 0.34 and 0.58 respectively. Thus, the current study is able to reject the null hypothesis that animation based teaching style is only effective for HSA students. The weighted mean effect size of HPK and LPK groups were 0.49 and -0.16 respectively. As a result, this study is unable to reject the null hypothesis that animation based teaching style is only effective for HPK students.

Significance – This study statistically proved that prior knowledge is a crucial factor while offering animation based teaching style and thus it should only be offered to HPK students. Whereas, spatial ability is not a crucial factor as both high and low spatial ability students performed positively with animation based teaching style. These facts can help educators to design teaching methodologies to enhance the learning outcomes. 

Keywords: Animation based teaching style, spatial ability, prior knowledge, individual differences.

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English Morphosyntactic Performance of A High-Functioning ASD Child: Implications on ELT

1,2Yusniza Mohd Yusoff, 2Khazriyati Salehuddin, 3Imran Ho  Abdullah & 3Hasnah Toran
1School of Languages, Civilisation and Philosophy,  Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
2Centre for Literacy and Sociocultural Transformation,  Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
3Permata Kurnia, Ministry of Education, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:

Purpose – The inclusion of an increasing number of highfunctioning ASD children in mainstream classrooms demands for adequate awareness of autism and effective teaching methods from teachers to ensure that learning takes places efficiently. Hence, this study investigated the atypical language performance of a highfunctioning Malay girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who chose to acquire English as her first language (L1) and eventually spoke the language fluently despite English not being the main language at home. Focus was given on the child’s literate language use of morphology and syntax in present tense English.

Methodology – Data was collected from spontaneous speech interactions with an 8-year-old high-functioning ASD child for a period of 12 months. The interactions were conducted at the child’s home. Each session lasted approximately an hour and was video recorded. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. In this study, focus was given on the morphology and syntax of the child’s present tense structures in English.

Findings – The findings revealed four main themes: 1) elaborated noun phrases, 2) adverbs, 3) conjunctions, plus 4) mental and linguistic verbs. The findings indicated the child’s strength in her language performance that was consistent albeit with weak central coherence account and that she was not at the optional infinitive stage of grammatical development.

Significance – These findings led to a further understanding of the language acquisition process in high-functioning children with ASD in Malaysia, and called for mainstream teachers to 1) upgrade their skills, enhance their knowledge and develop their awareness of the linguistic ability of high-functioning ASD children, and 2) implement effective teaching methods in managing them. 

Keywords: High-functioning ASD, Optional Infinitive (OI), Weak Central Coherence (WCC).

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Enhancing Science Achievement Utilising an Integrated STEM Approach

Akawo Angwal Yaki, 1Rohaida Mohd Saat, Renuka V. Sathasivam   & Hutkemri Zulnaidi
Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:

Purpose – The integrated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education has been reported to improve students’ science achievement. Nevertheless, few studies have focused on how this approach affected different ability groups. Lack of equity or the presence of achievement gap can be detrimental because they can reduce medium and low-ability students’ interest in science, which in turn can affect national development. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the main and the interaction effects of integrated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (ISTEMA) on students’ science achievement and how this approach affects students with different academic abilities.

Methodology – The research adopted a 2x3 factorial design. The sample size consisted of 100 Nigerian science students from Year 11. A total of 51 students with different academic abilities (low, medium and high) were assigned randomly to an experimental group. The experimental group was taught genetics using a fivephased iterative ISTEMA process. Pre-test and post-test data were collected using 40 multiple-choice questions adopted from a national high-stakes examination. Analysis of covariance, paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance were utilised in the data analysis.

Findings – Findings for research question one revealed a main significant difference in science achievement between year 11 students who learned using ISTEMA and those using traditional methods. No significant interaction effect was observed between the instructional approach and students’ academic abilities, that is, students’ academic abilities and the instructional approach did not interact to enhance students’ achievement. The findings for research question two indicated that high, medium and low academic-ability students benefitted; however, students with low academic abilities had the highest mean gain.

Significance – Findings in this study have revealed empirically that the ISTEMA, as an instructional approach, has the potential to close the academic achievement gap. The findings may also serve as a guide for policymakers to promote STEM education in schools. 

Keywords: Genetics, science achievement, stem education and students’ academic ability.

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Teachers’ Practices in the Acquisition of English by Asian Immigrant English Language Learners

1Mazlina Che Mustafa, Nor Mashitah Md. Radzi, Abdul Halim  Masnan, Juppri Bacotang, Zainiah Mohamed Isa, Zaharah  Osman & Azila Alias
Department of Early Childhood Education,  Faculty of Human Development,  Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
1Corresponding author:

Purpose - The increase in the enrolments of immigrant children in New Zealand seems to have posed great challenges to early childhood education services when it comes to developing the children’s English language acquisition. This qualitative case study explored how New Zealand early childhood teachers develop the English language acquisition of Asian immigrant English language learners (ELLs). The theoretical framework of this research drew on a range of sociocultural perspectives, including sociocultural adaptation and acculturation strategies.

Methodology - The main participants of this study were seven early childhood teachers and six Asian immigrant ELLs from two early childhood centres. Data on the teachers were collected through observations and semi-structured interviews. For each centre, observations were carried out over a six week period which enabled a series of snapshots of how the teachers developed the English language acquisition of the ELLs.

Findings - Making interactions comprehensible for the ELLs is one of the main strategies used by the teachers in developing the acquisition of English language by the ELLs. In the process of teaching the English language to the ELLs, most of the teachers were observed to use certain strategies in making interactions comprehensible for them. The teachers highlighted the strategies and modifications they made in order to make their interactions comprehensible for the ELLs. During the interview, it was clearly seen that with better proficiency in the English language, the communication between the ELLs and their teachers improved. Therefore, the sociocultural adaptation process takes place in a smooth manner for both the ELLs and the teachers.

Significance - The central significance of the finding is that through the exploration of New Zealand early childhood teachers’ beliefs and practices, important insights are offered which lead to the improvement of educational practices in early childhood settings for immigrant children in relation to English acquisition. While some of the teachers’ beliefs and practices may have facilitative or positive effects on English acquisition, others may bring debilitative or harmful effects. The findings also add to the existing body of knowledge on teachers’ beliefs and practices in developing English acquisition among the ELLs, particularly Asian children. In the New Zealand early childhood education context, the study provides a platform on how early childhood teachers in New Zealand could develop English acquisition among Asian immigrant ELLs, while valuing and understanding children’s cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: Early language learners, early childhood, Asian learners, second language acquisition, sociocultural theories.

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Ketahanan Diri Akademik Dalam Kalangan Murid Daripada Ibu Bapa Bercerai

1Marini Kasim & 2Nor Shafrin Ahmad
1Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan dan Bahasa Moden, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
2Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Pendidikan, Universiti Sains Malaysia
1Corresponding author:

Tujuan – Kajian ini dilakukan untuk menentukan pengaruh faktor pelindung dan kekuatan dalaman terhadap ketahanan diri akademik dalam kalangan murid dari ibu bapa bercerai. Kajian ini juga bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti dimensi faktor pelindung dan kekuatan dalaman yang menjadi peramal yang berkesan bagi menentukan ketahanan diri akademik murid dari latar belakang ibu bapa yang bercerai.

Metodologi – Kaedah penyelidikan gabungan (mixed-methods) antara kuantitatif dan kualitatif digunakan melalui pengumpulan data secara soal selidik dan temu bual ke atas murid tingkatan empat dari sekolah-sekolah yang terpilih di Kedah. Responden bagi soal selidik untuk kaedah kuantitatif terdiri daripada 46 orang murid tingkatan empat dari 19 buah sekolah di Kedah yang telah dikenal pasti sebagai murid dari keluarga yang ibubapa bercerai. Seterusnya untuk kaedah kualitatif pula seramai lima orang murid telah dipilih secara persampelan bertujuan mengikut keperluan kajian untuk ditemu bual berdasarkan status perkahwinan ibu bapa (bercerai). Kaedah triangulation digunakan untuk melihat kesepadanan antara data kuantitatif dan kualitatif agar dapatan kajian adalah lebih komprehensif.

Dapatan – Dapatan kajian menunjukkan tahap faktor pelindung, kekuatan dalaman dan ketahanan diri murid adalah tinggi. Hasil temu bual menunjukkan faktor pelindung memainkan peranan yang lebih bagi meningkatkan ketahanan diri berbanding kekuatan dalaman. Semua murid yang ditemu bual mempunyai hubungan yang rapat dan menghargai perhubungan erat sama ada dalam kalangan adik beradik, kawan-kawan ataupun guru di sekolah.

Signifikan – Hasil kajian membuktikan terdapat keperluan kritikal terutamanya bagi guru untuk memahami faktor-faktor pelindung yang mampu meningkatkan tumpuan murid semasa proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran berlangsung serta ketahanan diri murid secara keseluruhannya dalam bidang akademik. Gabungan dapatan secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif telah menyediakan maklumat yang boleh digunapakai oleh guru-guru sebagai garis panduan dalam mengenal pasti langkah-langkah awal yang perlu diambil untuk menangani kesediaan murid untuk belajar jika berlaku perceraian. 

Kata kunci: Ketahanan diri, faktor pelindung, kekuatan dalaman, perceraian, Teori Ekologi Bronfenbrenner, Model Ketahanan Diri Richardson.

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Purpose – This study was conducted to determine the influence of the protective factor and internal strength on academic resilience among students of divorced parents. The study also aims to identify the dimensions of protective factors and internal strengths that become the predictors of student’s academic resilience of divorced parents.

Methodology – Mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods were administrated through questionnaires and interviews with form four students from selected schools in Kedah. The respondents for quantitative methods consist of 46 form four students who have been selected through systematic sampling from 19 schools in Kedah. As for the qualitative method, 5 pupils were selected using purposive sampling. The interview questions were designed to further study the role, the influence of protective factors and internal strength in improving students’ academic resilience who are from the divorced parents. The triangulation method is used to see the equivalence between quantitative and qualitative data so that the findings are more comprehensive.

Findings – Overall the findings demonstrate that the variables of protective factors, internal strength and resilience is at a high level. The interview results show that the protective factors play a greate role in improving academic resilience than internal strength. All respondents found close relationships and appreciates the close relationship between siblings, friends or teachers at school.

Significant – The findings indicate that there is a critical need especially for teachers to understand the protective factors that can enhance the focus of the students during the teaching and learning process as well as the students’ overall resilience in the academic field. The combined quantitative and qualitative findings have provided information that teachers can use as a guideline inidentifying the initial steps that need to be taken to address students’ readiness to learn in the event of divorce.

Keywords: Resilience, protective factor, internal strength, divorce, Teori Ekologi Bronfenbrenner, Richardson Resilence Model.