Monday, March 08, 2021
Text Size

Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 16, No.2 Dec. 2019

Chan Suet Fong & Dorothy DeWitt
Iqbal Ahmad, Hamdan Said, & Faizah Mohamad Nor
Shanizan Herman Mohd Radzi, Wee Hoe Tan & Amri Yusoff
Abdo Mohamed Al Mekhlafi & Mohamed El Tahir Osman
Jayaraman Krishnaswamy, Seow Soo Koon & Nagaletchimee Annamalai
Mary Fatimah Subet & Mohd Ridzuan Md Nasir
Anida Sarudin, Husna Faredza Mohamed Redzwan, Zulkifli Osman, Raja Noor Farah Azura Raja Ma’amor Shah & Intan Safinas Mohd Ariff Albakri

Tour Guide Simulation: A Task-Based Learning Activity to Enhance Young Thai Learners’ English
1 Budsaba Kanoksilapatham & 2Todsapon Suranakkharin
1Department of English, Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University, Thailand
2Department of English, Faculty of Humanities, Naresuan University, Thailand
1 Corresponding


Purpose - This study aimed to explore the effects of task-based language teaching (TBLT) with a tour guide simulation as a focused activity on young Thai learners’ English speaking skill and their attitudes towards the instruction.

Methodology Based on a three-phase framework (i.e., pre-task, during-task, and post-task), TBLT was implemented with a Grade 4 class for a period of eleven weeks. Initially, a set of English lessons developed based on the context of local tourist attractions was implemented at the pre-task stage. In the second stage, a simulated tour guide task was used to assess their ability to turn the language input into a practical and authentic use of English speaking. Subsequently, corrective feedback on each student’s performance was provided, and their attitudes towards the instruction were examined at the last stage.

Findings The students were able to satisfactorily complete the tour guide task in English, indicating the potential of the task as a device to strengthen their speaking skill. Moreover, they generally had a favourable attitude towards the instruction.

Significance These findings are significant for both school teachers and curriculum designers. In addition to confirming the effectiveness of TBLT, this study highlights the promising use of context specific-based lessons and class activities as an avenue for young learners to practice speaking English in a context relevant to them.

 Keywords: Task-based language teaching, tour guide task, elementary English education.

Full text btn

The Validity and Effectiveness of the Reflective-Metacognitive Learning Model in Improving Students’ Metacognition Ability in Indonesia
1Muhali, 2Leny Yuanita & 3Muslimin Ibrahim
1Faculty of Science and Mathematics Education, IKIP Mataram
2Chemistry Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya
3Biology Department, Universitas Negeri Surabaya
1Corresponding Author:


Purpose - This study investigated the content and construct validity of the Reflective-Metacognitive Learning (RML) Model, and the effectiveness of the RML Model in comparison with Cognitive-Metacognitive Learning (CML) Model in improving students’ metacognitive knowledge, skills, and awareness after the learning process.

Methodology - This experimental study began with developing the RML Model, which covered planning, development and evaluation. A focus group discussion involving four experts in science education was conducted to determine the validity of the RML Model and its supporting devices in terms of content validity and construct validity. An experimental study using a randomized pretest-posttest control group design was then implemented on forty senior high school students to evaluate the effectiveness of the RML Model against the CML Model. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically.

Findings - The results showed that the RML Model was highly valid in terms of content validity and construct validity, Metacognitive knowledge increased to a high degree, while metacognitive skills and awareness increased to a medium degree. Based on the results, it was concluded that the RML Model was valid and more effective than the CML Model in terms of improving students’ metacognitive ability.

Significance - The RML Model, which is marked by the reflection of thinking processes as the core, is expected to improve students' metacognitive ability.

Keywords: Learning model, RML model, validity of RML model, metacognitive ability, effectiveness of RML model and CML model.

Full text btn

Learner Autonomy of Pre-Service Teachers and its Associations with Academic Motivation and Self-Efficacy
1Muhammet Fatih Alkan & 2Mehmet Arslan
1Department of Educational Sciences, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Turkey
2Department of Primary School Teaching, Girne American University, TRNC
1Corresponding author:


Purpose Learner autonomy enables an individual to learn how to cope with novelties without getting any help from others. Considering the rapid changes and transformations of the 21st century, it has become essential for teachers to possess this characteristic. Moreover, measuring learner autonomy is required to determine their levels. Thus, the purpose of this two-phased study was to adapt the Autonomous Learning Scale into Turkish and to investigate academic motivation and self-efficacy as the predictors of autonomous learning.

Methodology In the first phase, the Autonomous Learning Scale was adapted into Turkish with the participation of 335 pre-service teachers. In the second phase of the study, the autonomous learning of pre-service teachers was investigated in terms of a number of demographic variables along with academic self-efficacy and academic motivation using the data obtained from 776 pre-service teachers with a survey method.

Findings For the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis showed that Autonomous Learning Scale was a valid and reliable tool to be used in Turkish samples. For the second phase, the regression analysis revealed that academic self-efficacy and academic motivation were significant predictors of autonomous learning of pre-service teachers. Additionally, their autonomous learning significantly differed in terms of department, high school type, and gender. Furthermore, the GPAs of the pre-service teachers were significantly correlated with their autonomous learning levels.

Significance The Turkish version of the Autonomous Learning Scale was presented to researchers. The relationships between autonomous learning and self-efficacy along with motivation have been asserted in a number of studies. However, the present study not only confirmed the correlations among these variables, but also revealed the predictive powers of these variables on autonomous learning. Therefore, teacher educators and policy makers can gain insights from these findings.

Keywords: Autonomous learning, academic motivation, academic self-efficacy, pre-service teachers.

Full text btn

Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence: Formative Assessment Tools for Mandarin as a Foreign Language
Chan Suet Fong & 1Dorothy DeWitt
1Department of General Studies, Polytechnic of Sultan Azlan Shah, Malaysia
2Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology, University Malaya, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:


Purpose - Intercultural communicative competence (ICC) is important in intercultural exchange, to address problems and conflicts which may arise due to miscommunication that results from interlocutors’ diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Interlocutors may have different perceptions and interpretations of communicative behaviour. However, cultural and intercultural aspects seem to be ignored in teaching Mandarin as a foreign language (MFL) in Malaysian higher education institutions. Hence, the ICC level among local MFL learners is unknown. In this study, formative assessments were designed in a culturally integrated MFL module to investigate learners’ level of ICC in a selected Malaysian polytechnic.

Methodology The polytechnic was selected as cultural competency was incorporated in the MFL course. A design and developmental research was carried out to design formative assessment for ICC based on experts’ feedback. The assessment comprised Intercultural Discussion and Reflections, Cultural Discovery, Cultural Quizzes and an Intercultural Communicative Task.  They were implemented to assess learners’ ICC.

Findings - The results indicate that different forms of assessment were suitable for assessing the respective competences, and that multiple forms of formative assessment should be employed to assess and improve MFL learners’ ICC.

Significance Instructors in higher education could apply these forms of formative assessment to develop ICC among their MFL learners. The assessments could also be extended to intercultural communication competence development in other languages, which is important in a multicultural and globalized society.   

Keywords: Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC), Mandarin as a foreign language, formative assessment. 

Full text btn

Exploring Outcomes of Service-Learning Participation: Evidence from Pakistan 
1Iqbal Ahmad, 2 Hamdan Said & 3Faizah Mohamad Nor
1Faculty of Education, University of Malakand, Pakistan
2School of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
3Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
 Corresponding author:


Purpose This study explored the perspectives of teachers on outcomes of service-learning participation in vocational training institutes. The main purpose was to gain a better understanding of outcomes concerning service-learning participation of vocational training institute students in Pakistan.

Methodology A total of 315 respondents participated in the study. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected vocational training institutes using a self-designed questionnaire which was drafted and validated after expert approval. The construct validation of the questionnaire was established through Exploratory Factor Analysis.

Findings The findings indicated that participation in service-learning resulted in increased course content knowledge, the development of interpersonal skills, and the development of a volunteering attitude among the vocational institute students.

Significance - This study is one of the few studies related to academic outcomes of vocational education students as a result of service-learning participation. The results facilitate understanding of the pedagogical role of service-learning as a practical teaching approach, and would be of particular interest to employers who are looking for skilled manpower in the current job market.

Keywords: Service-learning practices, learning outcomes, vocational training institutes.

Full text btn

Shipping Management Simulation Game for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Quasi-Experimental Study
1Shanizan Herman Mohd Radzi, 2Wee Hoe Tan & 3Amri Yusoff
1,2&3Faculty of Art, Computing and Creative Industry, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
1School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding author:

Purpose This study examines the effects of a simulation board game for teaching and learning shipping management in higher education. A framework of comprehensive shipping operations is developedaccording to the syllabus of the Shipping Management course at Universiti Utara Malaysia.The course core content in the game covers two main services—liner services and tramp services in the shipping industry.

Methodology A quasi-experimental research design was adopted to measure the effectiveness of the board game in giving students some understanding about shipping operations. Data were gathered from a sample of 73 undergraduate students enrolled in a Shipping Management course, using a non-equivalent control group design. The data were analysed using the McNemar Test to determine the level of understanding in shipping operations.

Findings It was found that using the board game in learning activities contributed to the improvement of students’ knowledge and skills. A performance comparison indicated that there were differences in students’ achievement for the tramp services and liner services contents.

Significance The framework for the shipping management board game aims to provide the best learning experience for students when they immerse themselves in solving problems and making decisions in the game. The framework can be used as a benchmark in the practice of game-based learning, particularly by affording students the opportunity to engage in learning by doing. Furthermore, this frameworkintroduces a tangible problem space through the board game, encouraging students to discover knowledge at their own pace in a non-threatening environment.

Keywords: Simulation board game, shipping management, game-based learning, game mechanics, intended learning outcomes.

Full text btn

The Effect of a Holistic School Improvement Model in Enhancing School Effectiveness in Oman
1Abdo Mohamed Al Mekhlafi & Mohamed El Tahir Osman
College of   Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Oman
1Corresponding author:


Purpose - This study examined the impact of a holistic school improvement model on overall school effectiveness, More specifically, it attempted to answer two questions: 1) Are there any significant differences in school performance between the control group and the experimental group before and after the experiment? 2) Is there any significant improvement in the experimental group school effectiveness before and after the experiment?

Methodology - As a part of a four-year longitudinal research project, the study used a quasi experimental research design to examine the impact of a holistic school improvement model on enhancing overall school effectiveness in Oman. The sample consisted of 16 intact classes selected from 8 schools (4 experimental and 4 control groups), with a total of 2378 students (1157 from grade nine classes and 1221 from grade seven classes). The experimental group schools were exposed to a wide range of school improvement activities within a four-year period. A series of workshops on activating the 13 elements of the Innovation Sustainability Wheel (ISW) were delivered to all administrators and teachers at the target experimental group schools, in addition to empowering students through enrichment programs in five subject areas. Data was collected from the Omani Ministry of Education school performance indicators, which included five subject matter achievement tests aggregated over three years.

Findings - The study revealed significant differences in overall school performance across the four years between the control and experimental schools, in favour of the experimental group. Moreover, a significant progression of school effectiveness was observed in the two grade levels of the experimental group.

Significance - The findings are significant in terms of providing educational systems with a workable mechanism for identifying key areas of weaknesses and means of improvement; establishing a chain of actions for activating all interrelated elements that act as driving forces for sustainable change; ensuring that the indicators of school improvement should include both operational processes and students’ learning outcomes; and contributing to the knowledge base in the area of school improvement in terms of a research-based model that has potential implications for practitioners and policy makers.

Keywords: School improvement, school effectiveness, systemic development, students’ performance, basic education.

Full text btn

The Shadow Education System: Students’ Responses to Private Tutorial Learning
1Jayaraman, K, 2Seow Soo Koon & 3Nagaletchimee Annamalai
1Taylor’s Business School, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
2Graduate School of BusinessUniversiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
3School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:



Purpose - In Malaysia, many families devote a portion of their income to private tutorial learning fees. Many parents, especially those who stay in urban areas, send their children for private tutorial learning. This research investigated the challenges of a shadow education system by analysing Malaysian secondary school students’ reactions to private tutorial learning.

Methodology - A survey instrument with a structured questionnairewas designed on a webpage and delivered via email and Virtual Learning Environment through Frog Asia, which is the first company to connect Malaysian schools through a single cloud-based learning platform. The online survey approach was chosen as a convenient and cost effectiveness means of interacting with respondents who were dispersed in various geographical locations across the country. 148 respondents from three Malaysian states, Penang, Perak and Johor, were identified using convenience sampling.

Findings - The results showcase the reasons for choosing private tutoring from both students’ and parents’ perspective. Significant findings revealed that the factors influencing students’ choice to attend private tutorial learning were the school environment, social influence, rigidity of the school system, students’ learning attitude and affordability for parents. The study also indicated that parents were exercising excessive force on students’ academic choices, which increased tension and anxiety among their children. Parental influence can be stressful and have a traumatic impact on children’s learning abilities. Furthermore, it was found that students were missing extra-curricular activities.

Significance - The secondary school syllabus is too crammed and its scope is too wide, leading school teachers to complete it without in-depth teaching and learning activities. Due to peer influence, private tuition becomes a routine activity, causing school students to miss extra-curricular activities. Ultimately, a good outgoing school student is a potential candidate for higher education, and educationally qualified and skilled persons are needed for the future economy of Malaysia. It is suggested that education policy makers should not introduce a rigid curriculum as rigidity leads to rote learning and produces poorly talented children.

Keywords: Private tutorial learning; students’ reactions; social influence; rigidity of school system; parents affordability; theory planned behaviour.

Full text btn

Analisis Semantik Inkuisitif Peribahasa Bahasa Melayu
(Inquisitive Semantics Analysis in the Malay Language Proverbs)
1Mary Fatimah Subet & Mohd Ridzuan Md Nasir
Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:


Tujuan Aspek pengajaran peribahasa harus dianggap sama penting dengan aspek-aspek lain dalam proses pembelajaran bahasa di sekolah. Peribahasa yang melambangkan kebijaksanaan masyarakat Melayu ini semakin terpinggir dalam sistem pendidikan dan menyebabkan falsafah dan akal budi penutur jati tidak dapat diekplorasi sepenuhnya. Semantik inkuisitif merupakan pendekatan kajian makna peribahasa yang melibatkan data, teori, kognitif, falsafah dan akal budi yang digunakan untuk memahami makna peribahasa dengan lebih mendalam dan menyeluruh. Kajian ini bertujuan menggabungjalinkan pendekatan semantik inkuisitif dengan kandungan pengajaran peribahasa melalui pendidikan Bahasa Melayu.

Metodologi Kajian berbentuk kualitatif ini menggunakan data-data peribahasa yang diambil daripada sukatan mata pelajaran Bahasa Melayu tingkatan satu hingga lima. Data-data peribahasa ini dikelaskan mengikut tema-tema yang diperoleh daripada kamus peribahasa. Seterusnya, Rangka Rujuk Silang (RRS) diaplikasikan mengikut kesesuaian konteks pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu. Penganalisisan ini berpandukan data korpus di Pangkalan Korpus Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) dan buku-buku teks Bahasa Melayu sekolah menengah, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM).

Dapatan Hasil kajian ini mendapati dengan penggabung jalinan semantik inkuisitif ke dalam pengajaran peribahasa, pengkaji dapat mencungkil falsafah dan akal budi penutur jati di sebalik makna harfiah peribahasa tersebut dan menjadikan pengajaran dan pembelajaran peribahasa lebih bermakna.

Kepentingan Semantik inkuisitif dilihat dapat digunakan untuk mendalami makna peribahasa sehingga ke akar umbi di samping membantu guru Bahasa Melayu untuk mempelbagaikan kaedah pengajaran peribahasa.

Kata kunci: Pengajaran dan pembelajaran, Bahasa Melayu, peribahasa, makna, semantik inkuisitif.

Full text btn 


Purpose - The teaching of proverbs is just as important as other aspects of language learning in school. Yet proverbs, which signify the wisdom of the Malay community, is increasingly neglected within the Malaysian education system, making it difficult to thoroughly explore native speaker philosophy and thought. Inquisitive semantics is an approach to studying the meaning of proverbs that involves data, theory, cognition, philosophy and reasoning to attain a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of their meaning. This research aims to incorporate the inquisitive semantic approach into the teaching of proverbs in Malay Language education.

Methodology - This qualitative study used proverb data sourced from Form One to Form Five Malay language syllabi. The data were classified according to themes derived from a proverb dictionary. Cross reference framework triangulation was then applied according to the context of Malay language learning. Analysis was guided by corpus data from the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) corpus database and Malaysian Ministry of Education secondary school Malay language textbooks.

Findings - The study found that integrating inquisitive semantics into the teaching of proverbs enabled the researcher to bring to light the philosophy and thought behind their literal meanings, thus making the teaching and learning of proverbs more meaningful.

Significant - Inquisitve semantics can be applied to gain a deeper understanding of the intended meaning of Malay proverbs and their origins. It also helps Malay Language subject teachers to diversify their methods of teaching proverbs.

Keywords: Teaching and learning, Malay Language, proverbs, meaning, inquisitive semantics.

Menangani Kekaburan Kemahiran Prosedur dan Terminologi Awal Matematik: Pendekatan Leksis  Berdasarkan Teori Prosodi Semantik
(Addressing the Ambiguity of Mathematical Procedural Skills and Terminologies: A Novel Lexical Approach Based on the Prosodic Semantic Theory)
1Anida Sarudin, 2Husna Faredza Mohamed Redzwan, 3Zulkifli Osman, 4Raja Noor Farah Azura Raja Ma’amor Shah & 5Intan Safinas Mohd Ariff Albakri
1,2,3& 5Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia
4Fakulti Sains dan Matematik, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia
1Corresponding author:

Tujuan- Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti pedagogi guru awal Matematik dalam kalangan kanak-kanak di Pusat Anak PERMATA Negara (PAPN) dan mengenal pasti sejauh manakah pendekatan leksis berdasarkan Teori Prosodi Semantik dapat menjelaskan kekaburan kemahiran prosedur dan terminologi awal Matematik.

Metodologi- Kajian ini melibatkan 20 orang guru dan 60 orang kanak-kanak yang berumur 4 tahun. Sebanyak 4 lokasi kajian dipilih, iaitu di PAPN Bercham, PAPN Sg. Siput, PAPN Teluk Intan dan PAPN Besout 1. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam kajian ini ialah soal selidik dan senarai semak pencerapan dan pemudahcaraan (PdPc). Proses pencerapan PdPc hanya melibatkan 8 orang guru yang terpilih secara rawak. Kajian ini juga mengaplikasikan korpus daripada Pangkalan data Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) untuk meneliti kolokasi kata dan konteks berkaitan leksikal padanan, kumpul, mengasingkan dan banding.

Dapatan- Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa PdPc, guru mengajar konsep padanan dengan menjelmakan perkataan cari yang sama, pilih yang sama, sama tak bentuk, sama dengan, dan tarik, manakala konsep kumpul dijelmakan dengan leksikal seperti mengikut yang sama, dan ambil semua. Seterusnya konsep asing dijelmakan dengan leksikal kira, cuba kira, ambil, masukkan, cari dan mana. Seterusnya, konsep membanding diajarkan dengan menyebut leksikal bezakan dan yang mana. Pendekatan leksis berasaskan Teori Prosodi Semantik dapat menunjukkan konteks awal Matematik, iaitu konsep padanan, kumpul, asing dan membanding dengan tepat dari pelbagai perspektif kolokasi.

Signifikan- Kajian ini mengetengahkan pendekatan leksis yang dapat menawarkan strategi baharu dalam pengajaran awal Matematik berteraskan Teori Prosodi Semantik.

Kata Kunci: Kanak-kanak, pendekatan leksis,  terminologi Matematik, kemahiran prosedur, Pusat Anak PERMATA Negara (PAPN), Teori Prosodi Semantik.

 Full text btn



Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify teachers’ pedagogy in the early Mathematics among students in Pusat Anak PERMATA Negara (PAPN). This study also seeks to examine how lexical analysis based on the Prosodic Semantic Theory could potentially clarify the ambiguity of the early Mathematical procedural skills and terminologies.

Methodology – Participants involved in this study include 20 teachers and 60 four- year-old students from four different locations; PAPN Bercham, PAPN Sg. Siput, PAPN Teluk Intan and PAPN Besout 1. Data was collected using two instruments; a questionnaire and Teaching and Learning observation checklist. Lesson observations were conducted on 8 randomly selected teachers. This study also applied the corpus from Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Databases (DBP) to examine the collocation of the concepts of matching, collecting, separating and comparing.

Findings – The findings suggest that the teachers taught matching concept by using words of similar meaning such as cari yang sama, pilih yang sama, sama tak bentuk, sama dengan, and tarik while in teaching the concept of collecting the teachers used synonymous lexical words such as mengikut yang sama, and ambil semua. The separating concept was also taught using synonymous lexical kira, cuba kira, ambil, masukkan, cari and mana.  Subsequently, the comparing concept is taught by mentioning bezakan and yang mana. Evidently, the lexical approach based on the prosodic semantic theory was able to effectively present the concepts of early Mathematics, which are matching, collecting, separating and comparing from various collocation perspectives.

Significance –  This study presents a lexical approach that offers a new strategy in the teaching of Mathematics based on the Prosodic Semantic theory.

Keywords: Children, lexical approach, Mathematics terminology, procedural skills, Pusat Anak PERMATA Negara (PAPN), Prosodic Semantic Theory.