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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 13, No. 2 Dec 2016

Feedback and Feed-Forward for Promoting Problem-Based Learning in Online Learning Environments
Ashley Webb & Mahnaz Moallem
Innovative Research & Training (iRT), USA
Watson College of Education
University of North Carolina Wilmington, USA
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The study aimed to (1) review the literature to construct conceptual models that could guide instructional designers in developing problem/project-based learning environments while applying effective feedback strategies, (2) use the models to design, develop, and implement an online graduate course, and (3) assess the efficiency of the models.
Method – Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered during the implementation of an online graduate-level course that was designed and developed using the two proposed conceptual models. Eleven students were enrolled in the course. Multiple sources of data and analytical strategies were used to collect, analyze, and interpret the data.
Findings – The results show that the characteristics and strategies suggested in the proposed models supported student achievement in course projects and activities. The timely and frequent feedback allowed students to make necessary changes to their final project parts and improve performance. The motivating, informative/ specific feedback and feed-forward goals appeared to provide a reference for areas of student improvement. A balance of the three types of feedback, along with metacognitive questioning, supported student improvement. Because the frequency of feedback was dependent upon student request, those who needed more frequent feedback during the acquisition of learning benefited from that, but those who did not need it received the moderate amount necessary to be successful.
Significance – The study brings to light the importance of three types of formative feedback in problem or project-based learning. It offers two conceptual frameworks for instructional designers and curriculum developers. The models could be used to provide all forms of feedback including feed up, feedback and feed-forward to support student success in PBL learning environments.
Keyword: Problem-based learning, Project-based learning, feedback and feed-forward, online learning.

Development and Validation of the Teacher Leadership Competency Scale
Fanny Kho Chee Yuet, Hamidah Yusof & Syed Ismail Syed Mohamad
Faculty of Management and Economics
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The main purpose of the study was to develop an empirically validated Teacher Leadership Competency Model (TLCM) which would enhance teacher leadership competencies in Malaysian secondary schools. There is currently no established instrument that measures teacher leadership competency, particularly in the Malaysian context.
Methodology – Structural equation modeling (SEM) utilizing AMOS Version 22 was employed to develop the model. Exploratory factor analysis was utilized to identify the underlying factors, whereas confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test the construct of the TLCM. The study particularly targeted a total of 928 trained teachers from 58 high-performing secondary schools in Malaysia. It explored their perception of the notion of teacher leadership competencies and their commitment to change their initial role as classroom leaders to teacher leaders in their respective schools.
Findings – The Teacher Leadership Competency Model (TLCM) was found to be a fit and reliable model with all fit statistics set well above the threshold level. The Teacher Leadership Competency Scale (TLCS), which comprised 21 items, would also benefit school principals in assessing the effectiveness of teacher leadership and teacher commitment in assuming new leadership roles in school change initiatives. The finding has also encouraged a fresh look at the implementation of teacher leadership programmes aimed at successful change in schools.
Significance – This study has pioneered research in the measurement of teacher leadership competency, the first of its kind, in the Malaysian context. Teacher leadership is a critical component in shifting the paradigm of teacher isolation to one of collaboration in the Malaysian school context. The findings of the TLCM will also benefit educational practitioners in designing a Teacher Education Model for Malaysia.
Keywords: Teacher Leadership Competency, Structural Equation Modeling, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Developmental Leadership Behavior of Principals, Teacher Commitment to Change.

Exploring Teacher Strategies in Teaching Descriptive Writing in Indonesia
Sufatmi Suriyanti & Aizan Yaacob
School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
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Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This paper is the outcome of a study which examined teacher strategies in teaching descriptive writing to junior high school students in Delitua, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The study was based on two questions: 1) What are the teaching strategies used by EFL teachers in teaching descriptive writing? 2) To what extent did the descriptive writing intervention change the EFL teacher teaching strategies?
Methodology – The qualitative data were obtained from observations, interviews and student writing. An intervention conducted with four teachers for four months using Spencer’s Writing Model (2005) to enhance the teaching of writing strategies was examined. The data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic coding.
Findings – The findings revealed that the teachers used limited strategies in teaching writing due to their lack of knowledge and understanding of the writing approaches. However, after the writing intervention, they improved their instructional strategies by incorporating richer writing descriptions which contained sensory details, figurative language and vivid words.
Significance – These findings can be used as teaching guidelines for EFL writing in any teacher professional development programmes. Training of teachers could be a starting point not only to increase teachers’ knowledge and skills in teaching writing but also to increase their awareness of the beliefs about teaching and learning. Our study provided evidence that training can bring about changes in teachers’ pedagogical practices which in turn, will lead to a more meaningful learning environment for their learners.
Keywords: EFL, Descriptive writing, Teacher Strategies, Junior High School, Pedagogy

Using Cooperative Teams-Game-Tournament in 11 Religious School to Improve Mathematics Understanding and Communication
Arsaythamby Veloo, Ruzlan Md-Ali, &Sitie Chairany
School of Education and Modern Languages,
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Madrasah Aliyah, Riau, Indonesia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This paper was part of a larger study which looked into the effect of implementing Cooperative Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) on understanding of and communication in mathematics. The study had identified the main and interaction effect of using Cooperative TGT for learning mathematics in religious secondary school classrooms. A recommendation was made to incorporate Cooperative TGT as a pedagogical approach to enhance interest in actively learning mathematics with peers via tournaments among students. Students in Cooperative TGT classrooms had also learned to socialise while learning mathematics.
Methodology – A quantitative approach using Randomized Pretest- Posttest Control Group design was utilised in framing the research study. Simple random sampling was used to select 64 Grade 11 students from Madrasah Aliyah, Riau, Indonesia. Data from control groups without TGT treatment was collected using pretest, posttest- 1and posttest-2 across three time periods. The duration between one test and the subsequent test was five weeks. Mathematics understanding and communication was measured using an open-ended test. A mixed between-within subjects ANOVA was conducted to analyse the effectiveness of Cooperative TGT on understanding of and communication in mathematics.
Findings – The findings showed that there was significant interaction between group types (experiemental & control groups) and time periods [pretest, posttest-1, & posttest-2 (without TGT)]. Cooperative TGT was found to have an effect on student understanding of and communication in mathematics. The gap score for posttest-1 between understanding of mathematics and communication in mathematics was 17.69, indicating a significant effect of Cooperative TGT on the latter compared to the former.
Significance – Cooperatiave TGT had encouraged students and teachers to be innovative and creative in the process of teaching and learning of mathematics in classrooms. This study has provided insights into how the teaching and learning of mathematics which incorporated group activities and tournaments in classrooms has helped to improve the understanding of mathematics and communication in mathematics of students at the Madrasah Aliyah, Riau, Indonesia.
Keywords: Understanding of mathematics, Communication in mathematics, Cooperative Team-Games-Tournament; Interaction effect

Validation of Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles Instrument for Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions
Nurulhuda Abd Rahman, Azwani Masuwai, Nor’ain Mohd Tajudin, Ong Eng Tek & Mazlini Adnan
Faculty of Science and Mathematics
Faculty of Education and Human Development
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This study was aimed at establishing, through the validation of the Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles Instrument (TLGPI), the validity and reliability of the underlying factor structure of the Teaching and Learning Guiding Principles (TLGP) generated by a previous study.
Method – A survey method was used to collect data through the 67-item TLGPI. The TLGPI was hypothesised to measure the six constructs of the TLGP. The TLGPI was administered online to all academicians from 20 public universities in Malaysia. In total, 284 responses were received from a population of 31,608 academicians. The collected data were subjected to a Confirmatory Factor Analysis to test for construct reliability, model fit, and convergent validity of each contruct’s measurement model. The CFA was also used to test the model fit and the discriminant validity of the pooled measurement model.
Findings – The CFA supported a finalised measurement model of six constructs for the TLGP. The TLGP was found to have reliable and valid constructs that represented the aspects of teaching and learning that are important in Malaysian higher learning institutions.
Significance – This pioneer study is vital in the Malaysian higher education context since the development of teaching and student learning can benefit from a set of empirically validated teaching and learning principles. The TLGP are statements on the scholarship of teaching and learning and can be a reference guide to good practice that can help set the pathway to a high-quality learning environment for students in the Malaysian higher learning institutions and the wider Asian context.
Keywords: Teaching and learning, guiding principles, higher education, CFA.

Designing Instruction for Active and Reflective Learners in the Flipped Classroom
Sherina Shahnaz Mohamed Fauzi & Raja Maznah Raja Hussain
School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
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Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This paper proposes a framework of instructional strategies that would facilitate active and reflective learning processes in the flipped classroom It is aimed at allowing one’s maximum potential to be reached regardless of any individual learning style. As tertiary classrooms increasingly needs to be as active and social as possible, the needs of the more introverted student could have been unintentionally overlooked. Therefore, the objective of this study was to produce an instructional design that could accommodate different learning styles and preferences in the flipped classroom.
Method – A design-based research approach was employed in three phases (preliminary research, prototyping phase and assessment phase) in a flipped communication studies course of 24 students. The instructional design, based on a literature review on the flipped classroom and Felder and Silverman’s active-reflective learning style dimensions, was tested and refined over six iterative design cycles to produce a final design framework.
Findings – Qualitative findings via observation showed that despite a learning curve, the finalized instructional design was able to facilitate different learning styles satisfactorily. Added benefits included learner empowerment, engagement, motivation and improved communication and thinking skills. Significance – As a design-based research, this study may be significant from the perspectives of both educational research and practice. Besides adding to the existent literature on different implementations of the flipped classroom, the proposed instructional design may serve as a practical guide for instructors who wish to flip their classrooms and spend face-to-face class time with their students on a more meaningful and personalized level.
Keywords: Flipped classroom, active-reflective learners, Felder and Silverman’s learning style dimensions, design-based research

The Multiple Intelligence Based Enrichment Module on the Development of Human Potential: Examining its Impact and the Views of Teachers
Nurulwahida Hj Azid @ Aziz1 , Aizan Yaacob & Sarimah Shaik-Abdullah
School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
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Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose Howard Gardners’ concept of multiple intelligence (MI) offers an alternative perspective on intelligence which highlights the importance of acknowledging learner diversity, individual talents and the development of human potentials. MI has been used as a basis for the construction of modular enrichment activities to facilitate the development of human potential among boarding school students. This study examines (1) the effects of such activities on students of different multiple intelligence profiles and (2) the teachers’ views of the MI based module and activities.
Methodology The study employs a quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-tests administered before and after treatment of the modular enrichment activities. Two groups of students from two Mara Junior Science Colleges (MRSM) in Malaysia participated in the study as the control and treatment groups. McKenzie’s multiple intelligences instrument was used as the pre- and post-test measure. A semi-structured interview protocol was used to obtain teachers’ views of the enrichment activities.
Findings – The study found that the MI post-test was favourable towards the treatment group. Students in the treatment group improved on each multiple intelligence profile compared with students in the control group. The qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed favourable responses from the teachers towards the modular enrichment activities and the inclusion of MI.
Significance This study highlights the importance of recognising that each student has his/her distinct potential. These differences can be captured through the construction of various enrichment activities that emphasise on the different multiple intelligences. The modular learning experience simplifies the process of teaching and learning. It enables students and teachers to understand the objectives to be achieved through diverse problem solving and creative production activities. It is hoped that through this study, educators and teachers will gain ideas about ways in which a MI perspective can help them to tap student potential.
Keywords: multiple intelligences, modular enrichment activities, quasi-experimental research design.

Investigating Learning Space for Research Workspaces in Higher Education in Malaysia
Norhafezah Yusof, Rosna Awang Hashim & Chan Kok Kian
School of Multimedia Technology and Communication
School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate learning space for research workspaces in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia based on the evaluations by experts and university research workers on a practical model for creating an effective research learning space. It examines expert analyses of the notion of a suitable research learning workspace and explores worker viewpoints on this issue.
Method – Experts from business (n=2), education (n=2) and architectural (n=2) backgrounds were interviewed and a survey was conducted on research workers from selected universities in Malaysia (n=222).
Findings – A research learning workspace model is proposed based on evaluations by workers and experts on what was needed in a research-based working space to make it more work-friendly and intellectually stimulating for researchers.
Significance – This research attempts to understand research learning space problems in institutions of higher learning and proposes one possible model for future research learning workspace planning. It also contributes to the literature on research learning workspace and its management in developing countries, especially when Asia is positioning itself today as a competitive global educational hub.
Keywords: Higher Education, research, learning space.

Model Authentic Learning Bagi Program Kejuruteraan Politeknik Malaysia: Aplikasi Interpretive Structural Modelling
Mohd Norulhisham Abd Rashid, 2Firdaus Mohamad Hamzah, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman & Mohamad Sattar Rasul
Fakulti Kejuruteraan & Alam Bina
Fakulti Pendidikan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan Kajian ini dijalankan untuk membangunkan sebuah model pengajaran berbentuk authentic learning bagi program kejuruteraan di Politeknik Malaysia. Model ini dinamakan sebagai MPAL (Malaysian Polytechnics Authentic Learning). Model MPAL boleh digunakan sebagai garis panduan kepada para pensyarah Politeknik Malaysia dalam melaksanakan aktiviti pengajaran secara authentic learning.
Metodologi Aplikasi Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) digunakan dalam pembangunan model MPAL. Pembangunan model ini berdasarkan kepada pandangan serta keputusan bersepadu yang dibuat oleh panel pakar. Seramai tujuh orang panel pakar yang dilantik mewakili Politeknik, Jabatan Pengajian Politeknik dan wakil industri. Terdapat enam langkah utama dalam pembangunan model MPAL bermula dengan mengenal pasti elemen-elemen authentic learning yang berkaitan. Langkah kedua menentukan context dan relation dalam aplikasi ISM. Langkah ketiga membangunkan Structural Self-Interaction Matrix (SSIM). Langkah keempat menjana model MPAL dengan aplikasi ISM. Langkah kelima menilai model MPAL yang dihasilkan. Akhirnya, model lengkap MPAL dipersembahkan setelah melalui proses penilaian.
Dapatan Sebanyak 13 elemen utama dikenalpasti oleh panel pakar bagi perlaksanaan pengajaran secara authentic learning. Setelah penilaian dilakukan oleh panel pakar, model MPAL yang dibangunkan boleh dibahagikan kepada tiga fasa utama yang boleh dilaksanakan dalam pendekatan pengajaran secara authentic learning iaitu FASA 1 (Fasa Permulaan), FASA 2 (Fasa Perlaksanaan) dan FASA 3 (Fasa Penilaian). Terdapat empat elemen dalam FASA 1, tujuh elemen dalam FASA 2 dan dua elemen dalam FASA 3. Pembangunan model MPAL ini bermula daripada kolaborasi antara politeknik, industri dan masyarakat setempat. Model ini berakhir dengan menggalakkan refleksi daripada pelajar serta penilaian kepada pelajar juga perlu dilakukan secara authentic assessment.
Kepentingan Model MPAL yang dibangunkan boleh menjadi rujukan dan panduan kepada semua pensyarah khususnya bagi Jabatan Kejuruteraan Politeknik Malaysia dalam melaksanakan proses pengajaran dengan lebih berkesan. Di samping itu, model MPAL ini dapat memberi gambaran yang jelas berkenaan dengan keutamaan yang perlu dititikberatkan oleh setiap pensyarah dalam menjalankan aktiviti pengajaran secara lebih bermakna.
Kata kunci: Authentic learning, Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM), Model Malaysian Polytechnics Authentic Learning (MPAL), Politeknik Malaysia.


Model Motivasi Kerja Guru Berdasarkan Signifikasi Tugas dan Pengalaman Psikologi

Mat Zaini Abdullah, Rafisah Osman & Fauziah Md. Jaafar
Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan dan Bahasa Moden
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Corresponding author :
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Berdasarkan Job Characteristics Theory (JCT), kajian ini mengkaji kesan langsung signifikasi tugas terhadap motivasi kerja guru dan kesan tak langsung signifikasi tugas terhadap motivasi kerja guru melalui pengalaman psikologi. Secara khusus, kajian ini menilai peranan signifikasi tugas dan pengalaman psikologi berasaskan rangka kerja pengajaran untuk menerangkan motivasi kerja guru.
Metodologi – Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk tinjauan. Seramai 497 sampel guru dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik pensampelan rawak berkelompok daripada populasi guru sekolah menengah kebangsaan harian biasa di negeri Kedah berjumlah 12,005 orang. Data kajian diperoleh melalui soal selidik yang mengandungi 22 item. Data dianalisis menggunakan pemodelan persamaan struktur dan analisis regresi PROCESS MACRO.
Dapatan – Dapatan kajian menunjukkan signifikasi tugas dan pengalaman psikologi (pengalaman kerja yang bermakna, pengalaman kebertanggungjawaban terhadap hasil kerja dan pengetahuan sebenar hasil kerja) secara signifikan mempengaruhi motivasi kerja guru. Penilaian keseluruhan model menunjukkan tahap kesepadanan model adalah munasabah. Dapatan analisis regresi PROCESS MACRO menunjukkan pengalaman psikologi (pengalaman kerja yang bermakna, pengalaman kebertanggungjawaban terhadap hasil kerja dan pengetahuan sebenar hasil kerja) merupakan pengantara separa dalam hubungan signifikasi tugas dengan motivasi kerja guru. Berbanding pengalaman kerja yang bermakna dan pengalaman kebertanggungjawaban terhadap hasil kerja, kesan signifikasi tugas melalui pengetahuan sebenar hasil kerja terhadap motivasi kerja guru adalah lebih kuat.
Signifikan – Kajian menghasilkan model yang menunjukkan kepentingan signifikasi tugas dan pengalaman psikologi (pengalaman kerja yang bermakna, pengalaman kebertanggungjawaban terhadap hasil kerja dan pengetahuan sebenar hasil kerja) sebagai penyumbang yang signifikan kepada motivasi kerja guru.
Kata Kunci – Job Characteristics Theory, pemodelan persamaan struktur, signifikasi tugas, pengalaman psikologi, motivasi kerja guru.