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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 13, No. 1 June 2016

Validation of a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Instrument in a Malaysian Secondary School Context
Hasniza Nordin & Tengku Faekah Tengku Ariffin
School of Education & Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This study focused on the validation of a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) instrument for using ICT in teaching and learning effectively in a Malaysian secondary school setting. The aim of this study was to confirm a seven-factor TPACK model which includes Technological Knowledge, Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical Knowledge, Technological Content Knowledge and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge.
Methodology – This study was designed as a case study situated within a particular context in Malaysia. A survey was administered to 150 pre-service teachers enrolled in a university in Malaysia. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the adapted TPACK survey was preceded by assessing the fit of the measurement model with the data in the study based on the a priori theoretical model.
Findings – The findings revealed that the measurement model adequately fit with the data collected within a Malaysian secondary school context, also lending validity to the adapted TPACK instrument used in this study.
Significance – The adapted and translated TPACK survey was found to be a valuable self-report instrument for measuring pre-service teachers’ TPACK knowledge. A greater understanding of TPACK may be required for pre-service teachers before adequate gains in using ICT in teaching can be achieved. Thus, it is recommended that this knowledge should be integrated in the Initial Teacher Education curriculum with more attention to improving access to ICT in Initial Teacher Education and the schools.
Keywords: pre-service teachers; TPACK; field experience; instrument validation; school

Interaction Effects of Gender and Motivational Beliefs on Self-Regulated Learning: A Study at ICT-Integrated Schools
Melissa Ng Lee Yen Abdullah
School of Educational Studies
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This study aimed to examine the interaction effects of gender and motivational beliefs on students’ self-regulated learning. Specifically, three types of motivational beliefs under the Expectancy-Value Model were examined, namely self-efficacy, control beliefs and anxiety.
Methodology – A quantitative correlational research design was used to achieve the research objectives. Data were collected through the questionnaire survey method from 322 secondary school students (166 males; 156 females). The samples were taken from two ICT-integrated schools located in Peninsular Malaysia. The learning environment in these schools was conducive for self-regulated learning. The Learning Strategies Scale and the Motivation Scale, taken from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) were used to measure the variables of the study.
Findings – The findings showed that self-efficacy and control beliefs were posistively related to studentsself-regulated learning. Anxiety, however, was found to be negatively related to self-regulated learning. The interactions between gender and levels of motivational beliefs on self-regulated learning were also explored in this study. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulated learning differed according to gender. However, there were no significant interaction effects between gender and internal control beliefs on self-regulated learning. This implies that gender differences in self-regulated learning were not due to the differences in control beliefs and anxiety.
Significance – This study offers insights on the interaction effects between motivational beliefs, and gender and self-regulated learning. It may helps to develop effective intructional strategies to enhance students' self-regulated learning skill in ICT-related learning environments.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning, gender differences, self-efficacy, international control beliefs, anxiety.

Experienced Primary School Teachers’ Thoughts on Effective Teachers of Literacy and Numeracy
¹Ruzlan Md-Ali, ²Hamida Bee Bi Abdul Karim & ³Fahainis Mohd Yusof
¹  ² ³School of Education & Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia
¹ Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This paper presents the characteristics of effective literacy and numeracy teachers within the current context of teaching in Malaysia from the viewpoints of a sample of trained and experienced primary school teachers of literacy and numeracy. The characteristics were established based on what the teachers perceived as important in guiding their pupils, to equip themselves with the necessary literacy and numeracy skills in order to cope with imminent educational demands and challenges.
Design – In this exploratory qualitative study, the data were collected in two phases. In Phase-1, the literacy and numeracy teachers individually responded to the Literacy Teacher Questionnaire (LTQ) and the Numeracy Teacher Questionnaire (NTQ) respectively. Both these questionnaires comprised open-ended questions. In Phase-2, focus-group discussions and reflection sessions, which focused on the teachers’ experiences in the primary schools’ literacy and numeracy teaching and learning processes, were carried out. The fully transcribed data from both the phases were thematically analysed.
Findings – The findings indicated notable skills and characteristics of effective literacy and numeracy primary school teachers from the viewpoints of the teachers in the study. These characteristics were distinctively categorized into four main themes, namely (a) structure, (b) knowledge and understanding, (c) strategies and skills, and (d) values.
Significance – The characteristics of effective literacy and numeracy primary school teachers that emerged from this study would serve as a frame of reference for education policy-makers and curriculum developers in determining the directions and plan of actions towards enhancing effective teaching and learning of literacy and numeracy in primary schools. The frame can also be adapted by teacher educators in aligning the training and learning activities with their literacy and numeracy trainees within their training institutions. Additionally, the findings of the study would serve as a flexible and adaptable foundation for improving the literacy and numeracy education of the Malaysian primary school pupils.
Keywords: Literacy, numeracy, knowledge and understanding, strategies and skills, values, effective teachers.

Speaking Anxiety in English Conversation Classrooms Among Thai Students
Songyut Akkakoson
Faculty of Applied Arts
King Mongkut’s University Technology North Bangkok Thailand
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This paper reports on a part of a larger research project concerning the conceptualisation of English language speaking-in-class anxiety, attitudes to speaking English in class and self-ratings of English-speaking ability, and perceived sources of this situation-specific anxiety.
Methodology – The participants in this study were 282 Thai university students of English as a foreign language (EFL) studying English Conversation courses at a university in Thailand. Levels of anxiety (on average and by dimensions) were investigated through questionnaires adapted from the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Attitudes towards oral English, self-ratings of English-speaking ability and sources of speaking anxiety were collated through semi-structured interview forms.
Findings – The quantitative analysis indicated the existence of speaking-in-class anxiety among Thai EFL students at a moderate level. Levels of anxiety by dimensions, namely test-anxiety (TA), fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and communication apprehension (CA), were found to be moderate as well. However, TA and FNE were significantly dominant performance anxieties. Qualitatively, students’ positive attitudes towards speaking English in the classroom were reflected, whereas a negative rating for their spoken English ability was reported. Finally, the limited repertoire of students’ vocabulary was found to be their major source of speaking anxiety.
Significance – This research urges awareness of anxiety-provoking factors in the EFL classroom as learners’ ability to communicate satisfactorily is both the learners’ goal of learning and the instructor’s goal of teaching. The findings have pedagogic implications in terms of affective aspects of learning, for students when making an effort to overcome speaking-in-class anxiety and for instructors when attempting to create a low-anxiety classroom.
Keywords: Foreign language anxiety, English language speaking-in-class anxiety, test-anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, communication apprehension.

Implementation of Lesson Study as an Innovative Professional Development Model Among Malaysian School Teachers
¹Chiew Chin Mon, ²Mohd Hasani Dali, ³Lim Chap Sam
¹Tuanku Bainun Teacher Education Institute
²School of Education & Modern Languages Universiti Utara Malaysia
³School of Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia
²Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This qualitative study explored the implementation of Lesson Study, a kind of teacher-directed and bottom-up approach of the Japanese model of teacher professional development in the Malaysian education context. It seeks to answer the question of how implementation of lesson study as an innovative professional development model among Malaysian school teachers influences teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge, and what school-based factors support or hinder the implementation of lesson study in the Malaysian context.
Methodology – The case study method was employed involving two secondary schools in the state of Kedah. Each school set up a lesson study group as a case. Case A had 9 teachers while case B had 8. The participants of both cases engaged themselves in the lesson study process for a period of 12 months. Each lesson study cycle required the participants to collaboratively plan, discuss, teach, observe and reflect on a particular lesson. Due to various constraints, at the end of this study, case A conducted three lesson study cycles while case B conducted only two cycles. Multiple data sources were gathered through in-depth interviews, observations, group discussions and reflections as well as participants’ journal writing.
Findings – The analysis of the qualitative data indicated that the lesson study group setting provided an encouraging opportunity and venue for the participants to collaborate, discuss and share their teaching knowledge and experiences. Consequently, the participants expressed that their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge were enhanced. They became more reflective and keener in promoting active student participation in their lessons.
Significance – This study revealed that the degree of knowledge enhancement was dependent upon each participant’s attitude and commitment towards the teaching profession. However, when provided with sufficient supporting factors such as positive support from the school administrators, committed and dedicated group leaders and strong collegiality among the lesson study team, lesson study could be successfully implemented as an effective and innovative mode of teachers’ professional learning.
Keywords: Lesson study, reflective practices, teachers’ professional development, student participation.

Strategi Pembelajaran Kosa Kata Berimbuhan Bahasa Arab
(Strategies For Learning Arabic Vocabulary With Affixes)
¹Mohd Zaki Ismail, ²Kaseh Abu Bakar, ³Nik Farhan Nik Mustapha & Nurazan M Rouyan
¹Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Pulau Pinang
² Fakulti Pengajian Islam, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
³ Fakulti Bahasa Moden dan Komunikasi, Universiti Putra Malaysia
Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
¹ Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Kajian ini bertujuan `untuk meneroka bentuk strategi yang digunakan oleh pelajar Melayu ketika mempelajari kosa kata baharu berimbuhan bahasa Arab.
Metodologi – Kajian ini merupakan kajian kualitatif yang menggunakan protokol berfikir lantang, pemerhatian dan temu bual sebagai instrumen pungutan data. Kerangka konseptual kajian ini dibina berasaskan teori strategi pembelajaran bahasa (SPB) dan strategi pembelajaran kosa kata (SPKK). Seramai 17 pelajar tingkatan enam dari dua buah sekolah dipilih sebagai peserta kajian ini. Mereka diberi tugasan mempelajari 13 kosa kata berimbuhan bahasa Arab. Data protokol berfikir lantang dan temu bual dianalisis untuk mencari tema dan diberi kod.
Dapatan – Dapatan kajian menunjukkan peserta kajian menggunakan pelbagai pola strategi pembelajaran kosa kata ketika belajar kosa kata baharu berimbuhan bahasa Arab. Namun tahap penggunaan strategi dalam kalangan peserta adalah rendah.
Kepentingan – Satu implikasi utama dari kesimpulan ialah pelajar mesti diajar dan didedahkan dengan strategi pembelajaran kosa kata berimbuhan. Mereka mesti dibimbing dan dilatih untuk memilih dan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran kosa kata secara berkesan.
Kata Kunci – strategi pembelajaran kosa kata, kosa kata berimbuhan, bahasa Arab

Meningkatkan Kemahiran Menulis Karangan Melalui Penggunaan Track Changes
(Enhancing Essay Writing Skills Using 'Track Changes')
Hasnah Mohamed
Fakulti Pendidikan
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Fokus kajian ini adalah untuk melihat kesan pengajaran subjek Bahasa Melayu berbantukan komputer, iaitu menggunakan track changes dalam penulisan karangan. Tujuan penggunaan track changes adalah untuk menunjukkan dengan jelas akan kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh murid semasa menulis karangan.
Metodologi – Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk kajian tindakan dan dijalankan dalam kalangan 28 orang murid Tingkatan 5 bagi subjek Bahasa Melayu. Data dikumpulkan melalui pemerhatian, praujian, pascaujian dan temu bual. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif.
Dapatan – Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa murid dapat mengurangkan kesalahan semasa menulis karangan dan dapat meningkatkan pencapaian dalam subjek Bahasa Melayu. Berdasarkan analisis yang dijalankan didapati min bagi bilangan kesalahan dalam praujian ialah 16.61 dan pascaujian ialah 5, manakala min markah dalam praujian ialah 53.25 dan pascaujian ialah 75. Perbezaan min yang ketara ini jelas menunjukkan keberkesanan penggunaan track changes dalam meningkatkan kepekaan murid semasa menulis.
Kepentingan – Kajian ini penting bagi menunjukkan kepada murid kesalahan yang sering dilakukan oleh mereka semasa menulis karangan. Hal ini kerana bilangan kesalahan yang dilakukan semasa menulis karangan akan turut mempengaruhi markah bagi subjek Bahasa Melayu. Di samping itu, kajian ini juga merupakan kajian sokongan dan melengkapi kajian sedia ada tentang pentingnya penggunaan komputer dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran, terutamanya pengajaran bahasa berbantukan komputer.
Kata kunci: Bahasa Melayu, pengajaran bahasa berbantukan komputer, track changes, penulisan karangan.

Implikasi Animasi Talking-Head yang Berbeza Tahap Realistik Terhadap Prestasi Pembelajaran Sebutan Perkataan
(Implications of Talking-Head Animation of Various Realistic Levels on Students’ Pronunciation Learning)
¹Mohd Najib Hamdan, ¹Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad Ali & ³Anuar Hassan
Fakulti Seni, Komputeran & Industri Kreatif
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
¹Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menilai kesan penggunaan animasi talking-head yang berbeza tahap realistik terhadap prestasi pembelajaran sebutan perkataan. Penilaian penggunaan animasi ini diukur melalui ujian sebutan setelah pelajar selesai menerokai koswer secara kendiri.
Metodologi – Empat koswer animasi talking-head dengan tahap realistik berbeza iaitu karakter animasi tiga dimensi tidak realistik (3D-TR), karakter animasi tiga dimensi realistik (3D-R), karakter animasi dua dimensi (2D) dan koswer talking-head menggunakan manusia sebenar (MANUSIA) dibangunkan untuk diuji. Reka bentuk kajian berbentuk kuasi eksperimen dan data kajian dianalisis melalui pendekatan kuantitatif. Seramai 150 orang pelajar semester 1 kursus Sijil Multimedia Kreatif Animasi dari empat buah Kolej Komuniti dipilih sebagai sampel kajian. Secara keseluruhan, ujian statistik ANCOVA dan Bonferonni digunakan untuk menjawab persoalan kajian.
Dapatan – Dapatan kajian menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dari sudut prestasi sebutan pelajar antara kumpulan pelajar yang menerima strategi tahap realistik animasi talking-head yang berbeza. Kumpulan karakter animasi tiga dimensi tidak realistik (3D-TR) merupakan kumpulan pelajar yang telah memperoleh min skor tertinggi dalam ujian sebutan manakala kumpulan pelajar karakter animasi tiga dimensi realistik (3D-R) pula memperoleh min skor yang terendah dalam kedua-dua ujian tersebut.
Kepentingan – Kajian ini memberikan implikasi kepada pengajar bahasa Inggeris tentang perspektif penggunaan animasi taking-head pada tahap realistik tertentu terhadap pembelajaran sebutan perkataan. Dapatan kajian diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran bagaimana proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran dapat dipertingkatkan. Sehubungan itu, kajian ini mencadangkan penggunaan karakter animasi talking-head 3D-TR adalah strategi yang terbaik untuk pembelajaran sebutan perkataan.
Kata kunci: Animasi; koswer; sebutan perkataan; talking-head; tahap realistik.