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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 10, 2013


When Compelled to FB Around Academic Texts: Postgraduate Students Reflected on their Online Experience
Sarimah Shaik Abdullah, Aizan Yaacob & Fauziah Abdul Rahim
School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This paper is part of a larger study which explored postgraduate students talk around academic texts via Facebook (FB). Our exploration is largely guided by the idea of reading as a social practice. In this paper, we specifi cally focus on the students’ refl ections of their online experience of talking around academic texts.
Method – The qualitative data used in this paper were derived from students’ reflective diaries, students’ FB interactions, and informal conversations and were collected from a group of students (27) attending a master’s class in distance learning mode. Thematic analysis was conducted to examine the themes that emerged to represent their refl ections.
Findings – The students’ reflections were grouped into two major categories: convenience and facilitation of learning. Students’ reflection on the convenience afforded by the FB talk centered mainly on the idea of distance and time. Their reflections on the facilitation of learning were broken down into the following themes: safe environment to explore, social support, self-regulation and autonomy. A separate category, “FB entries need responding”, was assigned to students’ comments about the importance of lecturer’s and group members’ feedback.
Value – This study revealed the potential of FB as a convenient, safe and an informal avenue for students to share their understandings and reading-related problems. The informal nature of their FB experience supported free exploration of ideas without the worry of having to appear “clever”.
Keywordssocial media, adult learners, academic reading, talk around text

Bilingual Test as a Test Accommodation to Determine the Mathematics Achievement of Mainstream Students With Limited English Proficiency
S. Kanageswari Suppiah Shanmugam
Seameo Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics Seameo Recsam, Penang
Ong Saw Lan
School of Educational Studies
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This study aims to investigate the validity of using bilingual test to measure the mathematics achievement of students who have limited English proficiency (LEP). The bilingual test and the English-only test consist of 20 computation and 20 word problem multiple-choice questions (from TIMSS 2003 and 2007 released items. The bilingual test consists of items in Malay and English languages. The English teachers classified their students into LEP and non-LEP groups.
Methodology – A total of 2,021 LEP and 2,747 non-LEP students from 34 schools were identified. Spiral administration was employed. A total of 2,399 students sat for the bilingual test and 2,369 for the English-only test. The scores were linked using RAGE-RGEQUATE version 3.22.
Findings – Findings revealed that in the word problem testlet, the bilingual test was one unit easier for LEP students, probably indicating that the Malay language adaptation assisted them. For the non-LEP students, the bilingual version did not provide any added advantage to them as they did not show elevated achievement score.
Significance – This study indicates bilingual test can be an appropriate test accommodation that validly measures both LEP and non-LEP students’ mathematics achievement in countries where English is not the native language but is used as the instructional language.
Keywords: Computation testlet, word problem testlet, LEP, bilingual test, English-only test, mathematics achievement.

Motivational Factors in Continuing Education an Academic Achievement of Adult Learners
Pei Ling Lee & Vincent Pang
Center for Academic Advancement
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
Correspondence author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between motivational factors in continuing education and academic achievement of adult learners. The study is conducted due to a lack of research pertaining to academic achievement among adult learners particularly in Malaysia.
Methodology – A random sample of 150 part-time adult learners from a public university in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, represented 202 part-time adult learners in the areas of social sciences and humanities at the university. A thirty-item questionnaire, adapted from Boshier’s Education Participation Scale(EPS) (1991) and Neill’s The University Students Motivation and Satisfaction Questionnaire 2 (TUSMSQ2) (2004) was used to examine their motivational factors i.e. personal development, career advancement, social pressure, social and communication improvement, and escapism. Self-reported cumulative grade point average (CGPA) was utilized as the measurement of academic achievement. Rasch analysis reaffirmed the content validity of items in the questionnaire.
Findings  The findings indicate that personal development and social pressure are the best predictors of academic achievement among adult learners. The motivational factors that are not significant as predictors are career advancement, social and communication improvement, and escapism. Adult learners with higher motivation for personal development (intrinsic motivation) perform better academically. Conversely, adult learners with higher motivation based on social pressure (extrinsic motivation) perform lower academically. Intrinsic motivation seems to be more powerful in enhancing academic achievement of adult learners as compared to extrinsic motivation.
Significance – This finding is crucial for program planners and adult educators. They will be able to lead adult learners to be more intrinsically motivated in continuing education. In this way, they will optimize their learning outcomes and develop quality human capital in Malaysia.
Keywords: Motivational factors, academic achievement, adult learners

Preschool Teachers’ Perceptions Towards the Use of Play- Based Approach in Language and Literacy Development for Preschool
Sharifah Nor Puteh
Faculty of Education
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Aliza Ali
Department of Early Childhood Studies
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – In the new mandatory National Preschool Curriculum Standards introduced by the Ministry of Education Malaysia, the play-based approach has been emphasized in the teaching and learning process. This study aimed to find out teachers’ perception towards the use of the play-based approach in the language and literacy development of preschoolers.
Method – A structured questionnaire survey was the main instrument used for data collection. The respondents consisted of 60 teachers from four agencies which provide preschool education, namely the Ministry of Education, KEMAS, Jabatan Perpaduan Negara (JPN), and private preschool centers in the district of Hulu Langat Selangor. All respondents were randomly selected. Of the 60, 51 respondents completed the survey. To gain additional insights into teachers’ perceptions 12 respondents were purposely selected from this group to be interviewed. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze data from the survey.
Findings – The results showed that teachers have a positive response towards a play-based approach in preschoolers’ language and literacy development. They believed children like to play and are actively involved in play. However, they were unsure about the use of play based approach. Issues and constraints such as time allocation for play activities, limited and unsuitable space for play, and lack of knowledge and skills required to implement developmentally appropriate teaching including play, made them resort to a didactic teacher-directed approach in their classrooms.
Significance – The study points to the importance of providing teachers with knowledge and skills on the use of play in their teaching approach. Intervention programs and collaborations among the agencies providing preschool education must be established to enhance the quality of teaching practices and to ensure the new curriculum is effectively implemented.
Keywords: Preschool education, play-based approach, language and literacy development, curriculum implementation, national preschool curriculum standards

Parental Attachment as Predictor of Delinquency
Lee Phaik Gaik, Maria Chong Abdullah,  Habibah Elias & Jegak Uli
Faculty of Educational Studies
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between adolescents’ parental attachment and delinquent behaviour in the aspects of trust, communication and alienation. In this study, delinquent behaviour refers to the set of behaviours which is against any mainstream established rules or norms. It is believed that delinquent behaviour has the potential to cause school failure, impairments in socio-emotional development, peer rejection, and adult crime.
Methodology – Data were gathered from a sample of 300 secondary school students aged 15-18 years old in Selangor. These students were selected from the “hardcore schools” which was obtained from the so called "hardcore schools" listed by the School Division for serious disciplinary problems. Two instruments, namely surveys on the “Behaviour of Students” and “Parental Attachment”(PA) were utilized to collect the research data. The researchers employed correlational research design in this study.
Findings – Data showed that the highest delinquency among the adolescents was misbehaviour in school, followed by crime, vandalism, pornography, dishonesty and drugs. Results also revealed a negative linear relationship between parental attachment (r=-0.282,p=0.0001) and delinquent behaviour, implying that adolescents with better parental attachment had lower levels of delinquency. In addition, findings showed that adolescents trusted in their mothers (M=3.70,SD=0.63) more than they trusted in their fathers (M=3.51, SD=0.72) in relation to communication and alienation. It is suggested that close supportive parents and frequent communication between parents and their children serve to prevent adolescent delinquency.
Significance – This research is significant to parents, school, teachers, counselors and the community.
Keywords: Delinquent behaviour, parental attachment, communication, trust, alienation

Simple Weighted Average as an Alternative Method in Aggregating Students’ Academic Achievements
Maznah Mat Kasim
School of Quantitative Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Siti Rohana Goh Abdullah
Institutes of Engineering Mathematics
Universiti Malaysia Perlis
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – It is a normal practice that students’ overall scores are computed by simple average (SA) method which considers all academic subjects as having the same weights or same degree of importance. This paper highlights the application of simple weighted average (SWA) as an alternative method in aggregating students’ academic achievements. The weights of the academic subjects must be determined prior to the use of SWA.
Methodology – In a case study, a group of five teachers from one primary school was asked to rate five main subjects taught in primary schools according to their importance. These five teachers have taught the five subjects for more than six years. The obtained weights values were used to re-compute 2011 mid-semester final examination scores of 33 year-six pupils at the selected primary school.
Findings – The teachers decided to give different weight to three subjects, but same weights to two subjects. Furthermore, the SWA scores give different ranking to the pupils as compared to the SA scores. Another sentence or two needed here to explain the findings.
Significance – It is argued that the use of the SWA method is more suitable than the simple average method in finding the overall scores of students’ achievements. The SWA method considers the subjects to have different degrees of importance, as they do in the actual educational context.
Keywords: academic subject, academic achievement, student assessments, simple weighted average

Inductive Learning: Does Interleaving Exemplars Affect Long-Term Retention?
Norehan Zulkiply
Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Jennifer S. Burt
School of Psychology
University of Queensland, Australia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The present study investigated whether or not the benefits of interleaving of exemplars from several categories vary with retention interval in inductive learning.
Methodology – Two experiments were conducted using paintings (Experiment 1) and textual materials (Experiment 2), and the experiments used a mixed factorial design. Forty students participated in each experiment for course credit. In each experiment, participants studied a series of exemplars from several categories which were presented massed and interleaved, and later their induction was tested either shortly after the study phase (short-term retention) or after a week’s delay (long- term retention).
Findings – Consistent with findings from previous studies, the interleaving effect was found in the short-term retention condition, and crucially, the present study provided the initial evidence that interleaving of exemplars also affected long-term retention. Interestingly, massing was judged to be more effective than spacing (interleaving) in most groups, even when actual performance showed
the opposite.
Significance – The present study shows that interleaved exemplars have considerable potential in improving inductive learning in the long term. For example, induction is used in case-based reasoning which requires one to start with learning from specifi c cases, and then form generalizations of these cases by identifying the commonalities between them. In order to enhance long-term retention, educators may want to consider using interleaved presentation rather than massed presentation in teaching examples or cases from a particular category or concept.
Keywords: Interleaving effect, inductive learning, category learning, category induction, spacing effect

Kesilapan Pengurangan dalam Pemerolehan Gender Gramatikal Bahasa Perancis
(Omission Errors in French Grammatical Gender Acquisition)
Hazlina Abdul Halim, Normaliza Abdul Rahim & Roslina Mamat
Fakulti Bahasa Moden dan Komunikasi
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Kajian ini bertujuan menganalisis kesilapan pengurangan oleh pelajar yang mempelajari kemahiran bahasa Perancis sebagai bahasa asing.
Metodolog– Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah penganalisisan kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Seramai 60 responden terlibat dalam kajian ini, di mana mereka diminta membuat pembetulan yang perlu pada 20 ayat bahasa Perancis yang bergender gramatikal dan melakukan satu aktiviti penulisan dalam 10-15 ayat selepas 100 jam pembelajaran kemahiran bahasa Perancis
Dapatan – Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa pelajar melakukan kesilapan pengurangan terhadap kata sifat, artikel, kata sendi dan kata posesif dalam pembetulan ayat dan pembentukan ayat bahasa Perancis.
Kepentingan – Kajian ini memberikan implikasi pedagogi kepada pengajar bahasa Perancis tentang perspektif yang berbeza terhadap implementasi pengajaran gender kepada pelajar. Dapatan kajian diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran bagaimana proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran dapat dipertingkatkan, dan pendedahan kepada kesilapan pengurangan membuka jalan untuk menilai semula metodologi pengajaran, penyediaan modul dan penyampaian untuk mempertingkatkan kemajuan pelajar dan prestasi pengajaran guru.
Kata kunci: Kesilapan pengurangan, bahasa Perancis, aktiviti penulisan, ayat bahasa Perancis

Pengaruh Faktor Keluarga Terhadap Pembelajaran Regulasi Kendiri Murid Sekolah Rendah
(Influence of Family Factor on Primary School Children’s Self-Regulated Learning)
Kanammah a/p Manukaram, Melissa Ng Lee Yen Abdullah & Shahizan Hasan
Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Pendidikan
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Corresponding author: kanammah1975@hotmail.com1
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Kajian ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh faktor keluarga dari segi gaya asuhan ibu bapa, suasana pembelajaran keluarga dan penglibatan keluarga dalam pembentukan kemahiran pembelajaran regulasi kendiri.
Metodologi – Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah tinjauan terhadap 639 orang murid Tahun 4 dan Tahun 5 dari 10 buah sekolah kebangsaan di Pulau Pinang. Teknik persampelan kelompok telah digunakan untuk memilih sampel tersebut. Kemahiran pembelajaran regulasi kendiri murid telah diukur dengan komponen kemahiran belajar dalam Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire(MSLQ) manakala faktor keluarga diukur dengan Parental AuthorityQuestionnaireFamily Environment Scale dan Perseption of ParentsScales (POPS).
Dapatan – Dapatan menunjukkan korelasi antara pembelajaran regulasi kendiri dengan dua faktor keluarga iaitu penyertaan ibu bapa dan orientasi pencapaian keluarga adalah positif dan berkekuatan sederhana. Pembelajaran regulasi kendiri murid sekolah rendah hanya mempunyai hubungan yang signifi kan dengan gaya asuhan autoritatif dan autoritarian. Namun, hubungan antara variabel-variabel ini adalah lemah. Analisis regresi berganda stepwise pula menunjukkan bahawa faktor keluarga adalah peramal pembelajaran regulasi kendiri yang signifi kan iaitu penyertaan ibu bapa, orientasi pencapaian keluarga, sokongan ibu bapa, gaya asuhan tidak responsif dan gaya asuhan autoritatif. Secara keseluruhannya, keputusan analisis regresi berganda menunjukkan bahawa faktor keluarga menyumbang sebanyak 30.6% (R2=.306) dalam pembelajaran regulasi kendiri murid sekolah rendah.
Kepentingan – Implikasi pendidikan dapatan kajian telah dibincangkan dalam kajian ini. Penglibatan keluarga, gaya asuhan ibu bapa dan suasana pembelajaran keluarga mempengaruhi pembelajaran regulasi kendiri. Faktor keluarga dapat membentuk murid yang mengawal atur strategi pembelajaran sejak kecil. Jadi, kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa ibu bapa mempunyai kesedaran tentang kepentingan pembelajaran regulasi kendiri sejak sekolah rendah.
Kata Kunci: Pembelajaran regulasi kendiri, penyertaaan ibu bapa, orientasi pencapaian keluarga, sokongan ibu bapa, gaya asuhan

Pelajar Generasi Pertama Sebagai Sumber Manusia: Motivasi dan Aspirasi Melanjutkan Pelajaran ke Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (IPT)
(First Generation Students as Human Resource: Motivation and Aspiration to Further Studies in Higher Education Institutions)
Abdul Hamid Abdul Rahim, Norzaini Azman & Rohaty @ Norhatiah Mohd. Majzub
Fakulti Pendidikan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Memahami aspirasi pendidikan adalah sangat penting memandangkan keinginan seseorang untuk melanjutkan pelajaran adalah langkah awal dalam proses permohonan melanjutkan pelajaran ke IPT. Tujuan kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk mengkaji fenomena motivasi dan aspirasi pelajar generasi pertama di sekolah menengah luar bandar. Secara khusus, kajian ini mengenal pasti tahap motivasi dan aspirasi pelajar generasi pertama untuk melanjutkan pelajaran ke IPT. Kajian ini turut melihat hubungan antara faktor motivasi dan aspirasi. Di samping melihat apakah faktor-faktor motivasi yang mempengaruhi aspirasi melanjutkan pelajaran ke IPT.
Metodologi – Kajian ini dijalankan dengan menggunakan gabungan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Seramai 417 pelajar generasi pertama yang sedang menuntut di tingkatan empat telah dipilih secara rawak berstrata sebagai responden untuk menjawab satu set soal selidik. Manakala 8 kumpulan berfokus telah dipilih melalui pensampelan bertujuan untuk ditemu bual bagi mendapatkan data kualitatif.
Dapatan – Hasil kajian menunjukkan motivasi pelajar generasi pertama luar bandar adalah pada tahap tinggi, manakala aspirasi mereka pada tahap sederhana tinggi. Terdapat hubungan yang positif signifikan di antara motivasi dan aspirasi. Faktor-faktor motivasi yang mempengaruhi aspirasi mencakupi faktor keperluan fisiologi, keperluan keselamatan, keperluan sosial, keperluan penghargaan kendiri dan keperluan penyempurnaan kendiri.
Kepentingan – Hasil kajian ini memberi implikasi strategik kepada pihak sekolah dan institusi pengajian tinggi (IPT) dalam usaha membantu pelajar generasi pertama di sekolah menengah luar bandar merealisasikan aspirasi mereka.
Kata kunci: Pelajar generasi pertama, tahap motivasi, tahap aspirasi, pendidikan tinggi

Pengaruh Sikap Guru Terhadap Pembuatan Keputusan ke atas Komitmen Guru di Sekolah: Galakan Pengetua Sebagai Perantara
(The Effects of Teachers’ Attitude Towards Decisions Making on Teachers’ Commitment in School: Principals’ Support As A Mediator)
Norazlinda Saad & Surendran Sankaran
Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan Dan Bahasa Moden
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding Author:
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh sikapguru terhadap komitmen guru dalam membuat keputusan di sekolah menengah berpencapaian tinggi di negeri Kedah serta mengkaji peranan galakan pengetua sebagai perantara.
Metodologi – Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah tinjauan untuk memperoleh data. Sampel kajian ini adalah 399 orang guru yang dipilih secara rawak dari Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) berpencapaian tinggi di seluruh negeri Kedah. Soal selidik kajian ini mengandungi 40 item serta mempunyai kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi dengan nilai Cronbach Alpha 0.94. Data kajian ini telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan Analisis Regresi Berganda.
Dapatan – Dapatan kajian menunjukkan tahap galakan pengetua dalam membuat keputusan berada pada tahap tinggi manakala tahap komitmen guru dalam membuat keputusan adalah pada tahap sederhana. Analisis regresi menunjukkan faktor Sikap Guru mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap Komitmen Guru iaitu Kesetiaan dan Kesediaan untuk Kekal di sekolah. Dapatan turut menunjukkan bahawa Galakan Pengetua menjadi perantara separa antara hubungan Sikap Guru dan Kesetiaan dan Kesediaan untuk Kekal dalam membuat keputusan.
Signifikan – Hal ini dengan jelas menggambarkan bahawa guru-guru yang menunjukkan sikap yang positif semasa terlibat dalam proses membuat keputusan di sekolah berpencapaian tinggi akan terus kekal di sekolah tersebut. Dapatan juga menjelaskan bahawa Galakan daripada pengetua secara berterusan akan mempengaruhi sikap guru untuk turut terlibat dalam membuat keputusan dan seterusnya meningkatkan komitmen guru.
Kata kunci: Membuat keputusan, sikap guru, komitmen guru, galakan pengetua