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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 9, 2012

Learning Approaches of Undergraduate Computer Technology Students: Strategies for Improvement
Suseela Malakolunthu
University Malaya
Corresponding author:
Alice Joshua
Sunway University
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – In recent times, quality of graduates and their performance has been questioned. Students’ performance is an indicator of the kind of approach (deep or surface) that is taken. This study investigates the kind of undergraduates take in their learning processes.
Methodology – This quantitative survey used Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F). Sixty-three students participated in the study.
Findings – Results showed no significant difference between the types of approach by gender, nationality, year of study, and major. However, the rank ordering of the mean value indicated that almost all the students who participated in the study did not possess a deep approach to learning. The Pearson’s r analysis revealed a weak negative statistical correlation between the deep and surface approaches to learning and weak positive statistical correlation between surface strategy and deep approach. However, a significant relationship between deep strategy and deep approach (r = .903**, p < .01) was found.
Significance – The lack of deep approach to learning among students can be attributed to factors such as the conditions of learning, professional capacity of teachers, and lack of instructional rigor in the program or coursework. It is imperative that emphasis is placed on using deep approaches to learning in the university courses so that deep learning experiences are created for students.
Keywords: Higher education, computer technology, learning approaches.

Malaysian University Student Learning Involvement Scale (MUSLIS): Validation of a Student Engagement Model
Fauziah Md. Jaafar Rosna Awang Hashim & Tengku Faekah Tengku Ariffin
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – In western countries, a model to explain student engagement in college or university has long been established. However, there is a lack of research to develop and validate a model which may help to better understand student engagement in the local university context. There is currently no established instrument to measure student engagement specifically in the Malaysian (or Asian) university context. This study was conducted to fill the gap. A measurement model on student engagement in the Malaysian university context, based on Astin’s (1984) Student Involvement Theory, was developed and validated for use in the local context.
Methodology – This study uses a survey research method to test the Malaysian University Student Learning Involvement Scale (MUSLIS), a measurement model of student engagement in the local university context. The MUSLIS is a 24-item scale designed to obtain feedback on the extent of student engagement at the tertiary level in the Malaysian context. The questionnaire was distributed to 347 final year students from Universiti Utara Malaysia. The data was analysed using the SPSS software (version 16.0) to run the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and AMOS (version 16.0) to analyse the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
Findings – Holistic evaluation of the model of student engagement found that the data collected acceptably fit the model. The instrument used was also found to be reliable.
Significance – This study pioneers research in the measurement of tertiary student engagement, the first of its kind, in the Malaysian context. However, a wider sample comprising data from different universities in the country should be conducted to further confirm the usability and validity of the proposed MUSLIS. The instrument can be used in studies which seek to examine the outcomes of student involvement. In practice, the measurement of student involvement provides useful information on the extent of student participation in activities on and out of campus, whether these are academic-oriented or societal activities.
Keywords: Student involvement, university, higher education, student development

Student-Teachers’ Approaches to Learning, Academic Performance and Teaching Efficacy
Pauline Goh Swee-Choo Wong Kung-Teck & Rosma Osman
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – It is argued that the approaches to learning of students undergoing teacher training are likely to be related to their teaching and learning environment, especially as they move from a more regimented, structured learning environment in school to a tertiary learning environment that encourages more independent thinking and perhaps questions ideas. Therefore, this investigation has an overall goal to use the unique approaches to learning (surface and deep approaches) of students in a teacher preparation program to address the needs of this particular group of students during their teacher education. The study examines the associations between scores on student-teachers’ approaches to learning, their academic performance and teaching efficacy.

Methodology – The approach to learning instrument used was the Bahasa Melayu R-SPQ-2F and the teaching efficacy was collected through the Bahasa Melayu Teachers’ Sense of  Efficacy Scale (TSES). The sample for this study was a total of 104 second-year student-teachers from two cohorts enrolled in a teacher education degree programme in a Malaysian university. The R-SPQ-2F was administered on the 10th week of a 14-week semester. A cover page accompanying the questionnaires provided general information about the study and specific instructions to answer the questionnaire. Student-teachers were requested to provide their cumulative grade point average (CGPA) score from the previous semester. Data was analyzed by using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r).

Findings - Findings showed that surface approach to learning has shown significant negative association with teaching efficacy, indicating that those student-teachers who used surface learning exhibited low teaching efficacy. Deep approach to learning has shown significant positive association with both academic achievement and teaching efficacy, indicating that those student-teachers who adopted deep learning had better academic achievement and also had a stronger sense of teaching efficacy. Implications of these findings were discussed as they related to teaching and learning, specifically in the attempt to facilitate deeper learning strategies.

Significance - The study provides further evidence that the translated versions of the Bahasa Melayu R SPQ-2F and theBahasa Melayu TSES are reliable instruments to assess and monitor student-teachers’ approaches to learning and their teaching self-efficacy beliefs. This study also adds to the very limited number of investigations of approaches to learning, academic performance, and teaching self efficacy of student-teachers in Malaysia.

Keywords: Approaches to learning, Bahasa Melayu R-SPQ-2F, teaching and learning, teacher education, teaching efficacy,Bahasa Melayu TSES


Penilaian Kemahiran Guru Sejarah dan Geografi dalam Pelaksanaan Kerja Kursus di Peringkat Sekolah Menengah Rendah
(Evaluating History and Geography Teachers’ Skills in Implementing Coursework at the Lower Secondary School Level)
Chan Yuen Fook Gurnam Kaur Sidhu Fatin Aliana Mohd Radzi Parmjit Singh & Md. Rizal Md. Yunus
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Corresponding author:
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menyelidik kemahiran guru dalam membimbing murid melaksanakan kerja kursus Sejarah (KKS) dan Geografi (KKG) di peringkat sekolah menengah rendah.
Metodologi – Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah penyelidikan deskriptif. Instrumen utama yang digunakan merupakan soal selidik yang ditadbirkan kepada seramai 186 orang guru yang mengajar di sembilan buah negeri di Malaysia yang telah dipilih scara rawak. Responden ini terdiri daripada guru yang mengajar Sejarah dan Geografi Tingkatan Satu hingga Tiga. Statistik deskriptif yang melibatkan min dan sisihan piawai serta statistik inferensi seperti ujian-t telah digunakan untuk menjalankan analisis data.
Dapatan – Dapatan menunjukkan bahawa dari segi pencapaian objektif dan elemen bagi kedua-dua KKS dan KKG, guru hanya mempunyai kemahiran bimbingan pada tahap sederhana tinggi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dalam kemahiran membimbing dalam kalangan guru-guru Geografi terlatih dan tidak terlatih. Namun demikian, tiada perbezaan yang signifikan dikesan di kalangan guru-guru Sejarah terlatih dan tidak terlatih.
Kepentingan – Dapatan Kajian menunjukkan keperluan untuk meningkatkan kemahiran guru dalam membimbing murid melaksanakan kerja kursus Sejarah dan Geografi. Kelemahan yang dikesan dapat membantu jabatan-jabatan tertentu di Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia untuk membekalkan latihan yang sesuai dalam membimbing guru-guru yang terlibat melaksanakan pentaksiran berasaskan sekolah dengan lebih baik di dalam bilik darjah.
Kata Kunci: Kerja kursus, Sejarah, Geografi, pentaksiran.

Faktor-Faktor Penyumbang dalam Pertimbangan Moral Pelajar Sekolah Agama
(Contributing Factors in Moral Judgment among Islamic Religious School Students )
Mohd Zailani Mohd Yusoff
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Matlamat utama kajian ini adalah untuk meneroka maklumat-maklumat yang berkaitan dengan konsep pertimbangan moral dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah agama. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh dimensi kecenderungan kerohanian Islam dan dimensi sikap dan pegangan terhadap standard kelaziman sosial terhadap pertimbangan moral mengikut skema-skema yang ditetapkan.
Metodologi – Tiga alat ukur digunakan dalam kajian ini iaitu Ujian Skema Taakulan Akhlak (UPSTA), Soal Selidik Kecenderungan Kerohanian Islam (ISDQ) dan Ujian Sikap dan Pegangan Terhadap Standard Kelaziman Sosial (USPSK). Subjek kajian terdiri daripada 500 orang pelajar yang dibahagikan kepada jantina mengikut jenis sekolah menengah agama di negeri Kelantan yang dipilih secara rawak berstrata iaitu Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Agama (SMKA), Maahad Muhammadi (MM), Maahad Tahfiz al-Quran/ Sains (MTAQ/MTS), Sekolah Agama Rakyat (SAR) dan Sekolah Agama Swasta (SAS). Kajian tinjuan ini menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif berasaskan pendekatan kajian rentas (Cross Sectional). Data dikumpulkan daripada ketiga-tiga ujian di atas dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis statistik regresi berganda stepwise.
Dapatan- Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa dimensi kepercayaaan dan keimanan berperanan sebagai pengaruh yang kuat dalam pertimbangan moral pelajar sekolah menengah agama. Dapatan juga menunjukkan dimensi kepercayaan dan keimanan, dimensi intrinsik dan dimensi ekstrinsik dalam aspek kecenderungan kerohanian Islam memberi pengaruh yang signifikan (R² = .47, sig .00) terhadap pertimbangan moral pelajar sekolah agama. Namun dimensi hak asasi manusia di dalam pemboleh ubah sikap dan pegangan terhadap standard kelaziman sosial hanya menyumbang (R² = .02, sig .03) terhadap pertimbangan moral dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah agama di negeri Kelantan.
Kepentingan- Kajian ini menyediakan kefahaman baru kepada isu pertimbangan moral pelajar-pelajar sekolah menengah agama. Kecenderungan pelajar sekolah agama terhadap aspek kerohanian Islam memainkan peranan penting dalam menentukan kualiti pertimbangan moral mereka.
Kata kunci: Pertimbangan moral, sekolah agama, pelajar.

Budaya Sekolah, Kepemimpinan Transformasional dan Pencapaian Akademik Pelajar
( School Cultures, Transformational Leadership and Students’ Academic Achievement )
Yaakob Daud & Yahya Don
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Corresponding author:*
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Tujuan – Budaya sekolah dan kepemimpinan sekolah mampu menyumbang kepada pencapaian dan motivasi murid, kepuasan dan produktiviti guru. Kajian ini meneliti hubungan budaya sekolah dengan kepemimpinan transformasional dan pencapaian akademik pelajar sekolah rendah.
Metodologi – Kajian korelasi ini melibatkan 657 orang guru dan 141 guru besar sekolah daripada 141 buah sekolah di negeri Kedah. Instrumen Budaya Sekolah dan Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ5x) digunakan sebagai instrumen kajian. Di samping itu, temu bual berstruktur melibatkan empat orang guru besar dan 16 orang guru penolong bertujuan mengenal pasti nilai-nilai positif yang diamalkan di sekolah turut dibuat.
Dapatan – Kajian menunjukkan bahawa terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara persepsi guru-guru di sekolah berpretasi tinggi dan persepsi guru-guru di sekolah berprestasi rendah terhadap amalan budaya sekolah mereka, dan budaya sekolah mempunyai hubungan yang positif dan signifikan dengan kepemimpinan transformasional.
Kepentingan – Implikasi kajian ini adalah budaya sekolah dan kepemimpinan transformasional mempunyai kaitan rapat dengan pencapaian akademik pelajar. Justeru, budaya sekolah positif dan kepimpinan transformasional dijangka boleh menyumbang kepada kejayaan sesebuah sekolah.
Kata kunci: Budaya, kepemimpinan transformasional, sekolah rendah.