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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 6, 2009

‘Becoming Experts’: Learning through Mediation
Fauziah Abdul Rahim
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Philip Hood
University of Nottingham
 
Do Coyle
University of Aberdeen
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This study is largely founded on Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, Feuerstein’s theory of Mediated Learning Experience and Lave and Wenger’s ‘community of practice’, which concerned building a community of learners that places mediation as central in learning and teaching. While the overall study involved Malaysian Year One English and Mathematics classrooms, this article focuses only on the latter. Two research questions were posed: 1) How does the teacher/peers mediate learning? 2) How does mediation infl uence the individual’s identity?
 
Method – This qualitative study was conducted within a period of three months. Data collection included intense classroom observations, interviews, classroom discourse and dialogic discussions with teachers and pupils. Microgenetic analyses of transcripts were made to show moment-to moment changes observed.
 
Findings – Four types of mediation emerged from the data: Environmental mediation, cognitive mediation, affective mediation and metacognitive mediation (i.e., an ECAM model for mediation). Findings suggest that mediation enabled the Mathematics teacher to change, to take ownership and to sustain her new pedagogical approaches within the classroom. This re-focusing benefi ted her pupils, and dramatically changed a particular less able pupil from one who was initially ‘lost in his world,’ into one who was able to engage in the learning process, take ownership of his own learning, as well as mediate other pupils’ learning.
 
Value – Hence it is argued that the ECAM model for mediation provided opportunities for this teacher and her pupil to expand their capacity to learn and develop their identities as individuals capable of learning and becoming ‘experts’.
 
Keywords: Learning through mediation, Sociocultural theory, Community of practice, Primary school
 

 
Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Agreement between the Mile Run/ Walk Test and the One-And-A-Half Mile Run/Walk Test and the Pacer Test
Ahmad Hashim & Mohd Sani Madon
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of the Mile Run/Walk Test and One- and- a- Half Mile Run or Walk Test, and the PACER Test 20-m, multistage shuttle run using criterionreference and norm reference as a working framework.
 
Method – The sample for the study comprised 2,056 students, with male (n = 1159) and female (n = 897) randomly selected using stratifi ed random sampling, from the whole population of students aged 13, 14, and 15 years from 18 secondary schools throughout Perak, Malaysia. Two trials of the PACER Test and one each of the Mile Run/Walk Test and One-and-a-Half Mile Run/Walk Test were performed. The estimated criterion referenced reliability for the Mile Run/Walk Test and the One-and-a-Half Mile Run/Walk Test, and the PACER Test was obtained using the proportion of agreement (Pa) and ‘modifi ed kappa (Kq) on FITNESSGRAM® Standards (Baumgartner, Jackson, Mahar, & Rowe, 2003) and the American College of Sports Standards (ACSM, 1999).
 
Findings – Results of the study showed that the Pacer Test had high reliability for testing the maximum volume of oxygen among male and female students aged 13, 14, and 15 years old. The statistical analysis indicated a positive and strong correlation between test scores and repeated tests for the Pacer Test on male and female students aged 13, 14 and 15 years old with r = 0.94 to 0.97; 0.95 to 0.97 respectively, and was signifi cant (p<.05).
 
Value – It is recommended that the PACER Test be used as a component of the Physical Fitness Test battery to replace the Mile Run/Walk Test and the One-and-a-Half Mile Run or Walk Test, which are still used by the Malaysian Ministry of Education, Teacher Education Division, Curriculum Development Centre, and also State Education Departments to test students’ cardiovascular resistance.
 
Keywords – Criterion referenced reliability, Norm referenced reliability, Criterion referenced standards
 

 
Gender Differences in Mathematics and Integrated Science Achievement Among Junior Secondary School Students
Mathew Olagoke Ayodele
University Of Education
Ekiti-State, Nigeria
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Purpose – This study examined gender differences in Mathematics and Integrated Science achievement among the Junior Secondary School students with particular interest on the interaction effect of gender and school type on students’ achievement.
 
Method – The study adopted an ex-post facto research design and generated data from an inventory from the statistics unit, Ministry of Education, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria Public Junior Secondary Schools (JSS). The inventory requested among other things, data on the Junior Secondary School Certifi cate Examinations (JSSCE) in Mathematics and Integrated Science over a two year period.
 
Findings – The study revealed that, signifi cant difference was detected in students’ Science achievement; no signifi cant difference between male and female students in private and public schools; a strong interaction effect were detected between gender of the students, the type of school attended and achievement of students in Mathematics and Integrated Science; the average achievement gap of male and female students irrespective of the school type is statistically signifi cant in both Mathematics and Integrated Science, also, the strength of relationship between the gender of the students and the type of school attended is slightly stronger in Integrated Science than Mathematics.
 
Value – The possible implications for the study is discussed and addressed to the government and other stakeholders in education.
 
Keywords – Gender difference, Junior Secondary Schools, Integrated science, Mathematics
 

 
Kesan Model Unsur Tautan Terhadap Pengajaran Karangan Bahasa Melayu
Zamri Salleh
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Batu 5, Gurun
 
Abdull Sukor Shaari
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini dijalankan untuk melihat sama ada pengajaran unsur tautan dengan menggunakan Model Pengajaran Unsur Tautan dapat digunakan oleh guru sebagai salah satu teknik dalam menghasilkan karangan yang berkualiti. Tinjauan terhadap karya terdahulu mendapati bahawa tautan (kohesi) lebih menarik minat pengkaji luar negara berbanding dengan pengkaji tempatan. Kajian ini dijalankan terhadap 60 orang murid tingkatan tiga di sebuah sekolah menengah di Kedah. Mereka dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan, iaitu 30 orang dalam kumpulan eksperimen dan selebihnya dalam kumpulan kawalan. Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk kuasi eksperimen (Quasi-Experimental Design). Untuk menentukan sama ada terdapat perbezaan yang signifi kan antara jumlah unsur tautan murid kumpulan eksperimen dengan jumlah unsur tautan murid kumpulan kawalan pada peringkat ujian pra dan ujian pasca, ujian-t sampel bebas (independent samples t-test) dijalankan dengan menggunakan perisian SPSS for Windows Version 11.5. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan pengajaran unsur tautan memberikan kesan terhadap jumlah unsur tautan yang dihasilkan oleh murid.
 

 
Kebolehan Penyelesaian Persamaan Linear: Satu Kerangka dalam Penaksiran Bilik Darjah
Lim Hooi Lian & Wun Thiam Yew
Universiti Sains Malaysia
 
Noraini Idris
Universiti Malaya
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membentuk satu kerangka berdasarkan model SOLO (Struktur Hasil Pembelajaran Yang Diperhatikan atau Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) bagi mencirikan kebolehan penyelesaian persamaan linear pelajar melalui empat domain kandungan, iaitu pola linear (bergambar), ubahan langsung, konsep fungsi dan jujukan aritmetik. Data bagi kajian ini telah dikumpul melalui teknik temubual klinikal. Subjek kajian ini terdiri daripada sembilan orang pelajar Tingkatan Empat. Kertas ini hanya berfokus kepada perbincangan dapatan kajian bagi tugas jujukan aritmetik. Dapatan kajian ini telah mengenal pasti enam peringkat kebolehan penyelesaian persamaan linear dalam menyelesaikan tugas jujukan aritmetik, iaitu peringkat prastruktural, peringkat unistruktural, peringkat multistruktural, peringkat relasional rendah, peringkat relasional atas, dan peringkat abstrak lanjutan. Kesahan berhubung dengan penaksiran dan penghalusan deskriptordeskriptor dalam kerangka telah menunjukkan konsistensi dan kesepadanan yang kuat antara kerangka dengan respons subjek.
 

 
Pengaruh Kemahiran Generik dalam Kemahiran Pemikiran Kritikal, Penyelesaian Masalah dan Komunikasi Pelajar Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
Rodiah Idris, Siti Rahayah Ariffin & Noriah Mohd Ishak
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kemahiran generik adalah kemahiran yang diperlukan oleh pelajar selain akademik untuk menjadi lebih berjaya dan cemerlang sebagai pengamal dalam bidang akademik, pekerjaan, dan kehidupan. Kemahiran generik diintegrasikan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam konteks subjek pengajian dan merupakan kemahiran boleh pindah atau transferable skills. Penilaian kemahiran generik di Institusi Pengajian Tinggi (IPT) mula diberi fokus apabila Malaysian Qualifi cation Framework (MQF) di laksanakan pada tahun 2006. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti pengaruh atau petunjuk utama kemahiran generik terhadap kemahiran berfi kiran kritikal, penyelesaian masalah dan komunikasi pelajar. Kajian ini menggunakan Instrumen Kemahiran Generik Pengajian Tinggi (GeSIHE) yang dibina oleh sekumpulan penyelidik Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Instrumen GeSIHE mengandungi 13 konstruk dengan 102 item dan ditadbirkan kepada 1,262 orang pelajar prasiswazah di 12 fakulti UKM yang dipilih secara rawak berkelompok. Kebolehpercayaan GeSIHE adalah tinggi iaitu dari 0.98 hingga 0.99. Analisis multi-regresi stepwise menunjukkan secara signifi kan kemahiran kepimpinan dalam aspek menghasilkan idea dan sering berinteraksi pada masa yang singkat adalah petunjuk utama menyebabkan pelajar UKM mahir dalam berkomunikasi. Manakala kemahiran pembelajaran sepanjang hayat atau keupayaan pembelajaran sepanjang masa merupakan petunjuk utama yang menyebabkan pelajar university mahir dalam kemahiran pemikiran kritikal dan menyelesaikan masalah.
 

 
Pola Efikasi Guru-Guru Novis Sekolah Menengah
Khalid Johari
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
 
Abstrak Ɩ Full Text
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan aras efikasi guru dalam kalangan guru-guru novis yang mengajar di 21 buah sekolah menengah di Sabah, Malaysia. Di samping itu, perbezaan efi kasi guru mengikut jantina, jenis latihan guru dan subjek pengajaran juga dikaji. Data dikumpul menggunakan “Teacher Sense of Effi cacy Scale” daripada 176 guru novis di 21 buah sekolah. Dapatan menunjukkan min efi kasi guru novis berada pada aras sederhana tinggi, dengan lebih memberi tumpuan terhadap pengurusan kelas. Dapatan menunjukkan efi kasi guru adalah berbeza secara signifi kan mengikut jantina, jenis latihan guru dan subjek pengajaran. Jenis latihan guru didapati lebih utama dalam menyumbang perbezaan ke atas efi kasi guru berbanding jantina dan subjek pengajaran. Kajian ini mencadangkan agar guru-guru novis diberi ruang yang lebih luas dalam meningkatkan tahap profesionalisme guru.