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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 15, No. 1 June 2018

Effectiveness of E-Learning Design and Factors that Influence Thai High School Students’ Abilities
Titie Panyajamorn, Pornpimol Chongphaisal & Suthathip Suanmali

Measuring the Impact of an Academe Community Extension Program in the Philippines
Ian I. Llenares & Custer C. Deocaris

The Life Story of a Resilient Underprivileged Youth: The Motivation to Learn Soft Skills to Thrive
Yatela Zainal Abidin, Rosna Awang Hashim & Hasniza Nordin

A Comparative Review of Caring Thinking and Its Implications on Teaching and Learning
Anis Shaari & Aswati Hamzah

A Review of Entrepreneurship Education in Teacher Education
İsa Deveci & Jaana Seikkula-Leino

Industry Perspective on Journalism Education Curriculum in Malaysia
Norhafezah Yusof, Awan Ismail, Rizalawati Ismail, Norizah Aripin, Azahar Kassim  & Mohd Sobhi Ishak

Presentation-Based Learning and Peer Evaluation to Enhance Active Learning and Self-Confidence in Financial Management Classroom
Bambang Sugeng & Ani Wilujeng Suryani

The Influence of Principals Technology Leadership and Professional Development on Teachers’ Technology Integration in Secondary Schools
Raamani Thannimalai & Arumugam Raman

“I Employed My Own Strategy”: Exploring Primary Headteachers’ Organisational and Professional Socialisation
Lokamn Mohd Tahir, Aede Hatib Mustama’al @Jamal, Sanitah Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fadzli Ali, Zainudin Hassan & Mohd Zolkifli Abd Hamid
 
Noor Lide Abu Kassim, Kamal J I Badrasawi, Mohd Sahari Nordin, Ainol Zubairi & Ratnawati Mohd Ashraf


 
Effectiveness of E-Learning Design and Factors that Influence Thai High School Students’ Abilities
1Titie Panyajamorn, 2Suthathip Suanmali, 3Youji Kohda, 4Pornpimol Chongphaisal & 5Thepchai Supnithi
1&2Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology Thammasat University, Thailand
1&3Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
4Panyapiwat Institute of Management, Thailand Language and Semantic Laboratory, INIRU
5National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thailand
1Corresponding author: titie_123@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose
–This study proposed and examined the effectiveness of e-learning content design by considering two different subjects (mathematics and reading) and areas (metropolitan and rural). This study also investigated several variables, i.e., students’ satisfaction, motivation, and experience, that influenced learning abilities. Moreover, we suggest ways of improving the effectiveness of e-learning for different kinds of students, subjects, and areas.

Methodology – The participants were recruited from 263 randomly selected students in secondary-school grades  9–10  (15-year-  olds). One hundred and thirty-eight students were from a public metropolitan school in Bangkok province, and 125 were from a public rural school in Suphanburi province. The main testing method was divided into two procedures. First, pilot testing was conducted to confirm the reliability, validity, and internal consistency of the program and the exam questions, followed by field testing methods, which researchers used to identify the effectiveness of content design. Data analysis involved a quantitative research approach using a paired t-test to find the difference in scores between the pre-and post-tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse and find the relationships between improvements in scores and variables.
 
Findings – The results indicated that the selected patterns of content and design were effective in mathematics and reading subjects and in both rural and metropolitan areas. In addition, the academic achievement, accumulated (overall) grade point average (GPAX), significantly influenced improvements in reading subjects, and the intelligence indicator (IQ) had a significant effect on mathematic subjects in both areas. Furthermore, students’ satisfaction had an effect on learning abilities in most student groups.
 
Significance – This pattern of design content may be significant for both instructors and program designers. This study provided a way of designing effective e-learning content that integrated effective indicators to identify potential students and improve their abilities. This pattern can be integrated with active learning. This blended learning model might be the new solution to solving problems with low-performing students in rural areas.
 
Keywords: E-learning design, e-learning method, e-learning effectiveness, variables that influence e-learning results.
 
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Measuring the Impact of an Academe Community Extension Program in the Philippines
1Ian I. Llenares & 2&3Custer C. Deocaris
1Technological Institute of the Philippines – Cubao Quezon City, Philippines
2 National University, Manila, Philippines
3De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
1Corresponding author: ianllenares8@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose
– This study is designed to create platforms to train students in higher education to be caring and responsible citizens. This is the third academe extension mission that aims to tap into the expertise and its knowledge to help the community. Based on the framework of community empowerment, the researchers measured the long- term impact of a 44-month community extension program in the Philippines. The extension program described in this study was implemented between March 2009 and December 2015 to address the capacity-building needs of a low-income community. This paper highlights some key development activities which includes partnership with local government, training needs assessment through grassroot-level participation and design of practical education-training programs.

Methodology – The study follows a descriptive research design. The Community Outcome Scale (COS) was developed to measure perceived knowledge, attitude, and lifestyle of the beneficiaries. Fifty-four community residents were purposively selected based  on their attendance to the community-based education and training programs. The ANOVA method with post hoc analysis was employed to determine the differences between perceived knowledge, attitude, and lifestyle among residents stratified according to the degree of completion of the training programs.
 
Findings – There was a moderate improvement in community knowledge, attitude, and lifestyle based on the survey which was performed one and a half years after the completion of the extensions programs. Based on the results, improved long-term outcomes were noted only amongst the regular and occasional participants.
 
Significance – There is an increasing appreciation of the impact of higher education extension in the teaching and learning process as students apply their disciplinary knowledge to help address real- world problems. This work may be of interest to higher education institutions (HEIs) which are designing community extension programs with optimized societal outcomes.
 
Keywords: Community outreach, service learning, university extension, Philippine higher education system, experiential education.

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The Life Story of a Resilient Underprivileged Youth: The Motivation to Learn Soft Skills to Thrive
1&2Yatela Zainal-Abidin, 2Rosna Awang-Hashim & 2Hasniza Nordin
1Yayasan Sime Darby, Malaysia
2School of Education and Modern Languages Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: yatela.zainal@simedarby.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose
– The study explored how an underprivileged blind individual from an extremely poor family developed resilience and soft skills to thrive in life, despite challenges that could have easily hindered the development of his abilities.

Methodology – This qualitative study employed the narrative inquiry method, involving responsive interviews. Experiences over a period of time were retrospectively documented via the collection of a life story from one participant who was very distinctive to the phenomenon being studied. Data analysis was carried out manually using open, thematic and longitudinal coding methods, after which interpretation was done to provide meaning to the results.
 
Findings – Positive youth development in the participant’s life may be the result of the ecological system he grew up in, supported by three synergistic protective factors: religiosity and spirituality, parental discipline, and care and support, in addition to the traumatic life turning points he experienced.
 
Significance – The findings provide directions for further research on the underprivileged in the Malaysian context. They would also be able to guide the government and other interested stakeholders on potential methods and initiatives to build resilience and motivation to learn soft skills so that underprivileged children will be able to thrive in life.
 
Keywords: Life story, narrative inquiry, resilience, soft skills, underprivileged, protective factors.

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A Comparative Review of Caring Thinking and Its Implications on Teaching and Learning
1Anis Shaari & Aswati Hamzah
School of Educational Studies Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: aswati@usm.my

ABSTRACT
Purpose
– This paper undertakes a comparative review of the concept of ‘Caring Thinking’ from the perspectives of specific figures (with different cultural voices) in the field of Educational Psychology. Specifically, it focuses on the area of Thinking and Cognition – Matthew Lipman as well as Mohd Daud Hamzah and Abdul Kadir Arifin.

Methodology – The review scrutinised the concept of caring thinking in Matthew Lipman’s (2003) Thinking Model as well as Mohd Daud Hamzah and Abdul Kadir Arifin’s (2001) Islamic Cognitive Processes Model (ICPM). Employing a cross-cultural comparative review, the analysis concentrated on the commonalities shared and the differences between the two schools of thought. The aspects of comparison include cognition principles, caring thinking inventory, thinking direction, human characterisation and role of beings.
 
Findings – This review suggests that the scholars propagate and share comparable nuances on the underlying characteristics of human cognition in order to facilitate the formation of the caring thinking concept. However, the interplay of human inner drive which incorporates values is deliberated in different cultural voices when Lipman (2003) vastly discusses caring thinking model based on the western context. On the other hand, Mohd Daud Hamzah and Abdul Kadir Arifin’s (2001) cognition model attempts to highlight human cognitive process from the Islamic perspective.
 
Significance – These findings substantiate the needs to understand the derivation of human cognition process  that  later  explains  their abilities to sense bad and good values in the scale of moral virtue development. Fundamentally, this discussion considers the perspectives of both scholars regarding the formation of individuals’ thoughts and behaviours which reflect the attributes of ‘caring thinking’. Hence, this implies that greater opportunities and efforts should be undertaken to explore how caring thinking can be made useful to the field of education.
 
Keywords: Caring thinking, Islamic cognitive process, human cognition.

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A Review of Entrepreneurship Education in Teacher Education
1İsa Deveci & 2Jaana Seikkula-Leino
1Faculty of Education, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
2Faculty of Education, Teacher Training School Turku, Turku University,Finland
1Corresponding author: deveciisa@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine studies conducted on entrepreneurship education in teacher education.
 
Methodology – A thematic analysis was used in this study that outlines the similarities and differences in the studies conducted on entrepreneurship education in teacher education.
 
Findings – The purpose of the studies in question is mostly to discuss curriculum, teacher training, economy and unemployment, entrepreneurial characteristics and the importance of teachers. The studies mostly aim to examine the attitudes, perceptions and views of students, teachers or other educators regarding entrepreneurship education. There are a lot of study results highlighting the importance of entrepreneurship  in  teacher  training.  The  biggest  emphasis  is laid upon methods, techniques, models or strategies used in entrepreneurship education. The recommendations put forward in the studies reviewed mostly concern a basic level of education. Many of these studies state that in-service training should be given to teachers at the basic education level with regard to entrepreneurship education.
 
Significance – This study can contribute to the literature in three different ways. Firstly, by presenting the current status of the studies on entrepreneurship education as a contemporary subject in teacher education. Secondly, it will shed light on the studies that will be conducted in the future as to how to approach the subject  of  entrepreneurship  education  in  teacher   education.   Thirdly, by investigating studies that draw attention to entrepreneurship education in teacher education, so as to provide a better understanding of the importance of entrepreneurship education.
 
Keywords: Teacher education, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, thematic review.

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Industry Perspective on Journalism Education Curriculum in Malaysia
1Norhafezah Yusof, 1Awan Ismail, 2Rizalawati Ismail, 1Norizah Aripin, 1Azahar Kassim & 1Mohd Sobhi Ishak
1School of Multimedia Technology & Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
2Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge & Human Sciences International Islamic University, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: norhafezah@uum.edu.my

ABSTRACT
Purpose - This study investigated media and communication practitioners’ perspectives on the journalism curriculum education in Malaysia. Curriculum plays an important role in providing quality education for students. Journalism is a dynamic field that integrates industrial experience and fundamental knowledge in the field from higher educational institutions. Scholars in the field are divided on the issue of whether it is important for academia to consider input from industrial players in shaping the curriculum on journalism education in higher institutions of learning.
 
Methodology - Drawing from the researchers’ experiences and guidelines from the Malaysian Qualifications Agency, the Taba Model was adapted as the theoretical framework for the study. The study used a semi-structured interview method. Fifteen experts were interviewed. They have served more than 10 years in the media industry and have held various executive positions. The interview protocol was developed based on the literature review and guidelines from the curriculum review of Communication and Media Studies. The interviews were conducted at the offices or homes of interviewees. Each interview ranged from 1 to 2 hours. The data was analysed using thematic analysis.
 
Findings  -  The  findings  revealed  four  main  themes,  namely 1)
Strong general knowledge requirement, 2) Right skills mattered, 3)
 
Interest in the field – ability to adapt and learn, and 4) Specialised knowledge. The analysis of interviews indicated that curriculum needs to revised based on academic convention and industrial needs.
 
Significance - Thus, these findings lend further support to the clarion call for industry and academia to collaborate extensively in nurturing high quality graduates in journalism.
 
Keywords: Communication and media, curriculum, industry, graduates, model.
 
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Presentation-Based Learning and Peer Evaluation to Enhance Active Learning and Self-Confidence in Financial Management Classroom
1Bambang Sugeng & Ani Wilujeng Suryani
Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
1Corresponding author: bbsg63@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to identify an effective learning strategy for students to engage authentically in their learning process. This study also aims to introduce an innovative active learning approach. This is intended to enhance students’ involvement and to strengthen self-confidence throughout their learning in the Financial Management class. As suggested in the literature review, the approach involves the adoption of structured and accountable presentation-based learning activities.
 
Methodology – This study used action research design involving an iterative process of self-reflective cycles: planning, acting, observing and reflecting. This research was accomplished in two cycles. Three Financial Management classes of an undergraduate program consisting of 120 students in the first cycle and 110 students in the second cycle participated in this  research  as  part of regular classroom activities. Semi-structured questionnaire, lecturer observation, and interview were used as the method for data collection. The quantitative and qualitative data that was collected were analysed accordingly.
 
Findings – The results indicated that the approach which was adopted in this research enabled students to be actively engaged in their learning process. This nullified free-riding learning behaviour among the students. The results indicate that the approach adopted in this research reasonably enabled students to be actively engaged in their learning process and nullified free-riding learning behaviour among them. It also provided a chance to students to exercise their self-regulated learning towards a more independent learner and increased their confidence to speak and participate in the class forum.
 
Significance – The results of this research contribute to the improvement of teaching practice in higher education particularly in the Financial Management course. The results imply that providing some freedom for students to creatively design and be accountable for their own learning has great potential of enhancing their authentic active learning and confidence.
 
Keywords: Active learning, self-confidence, peer-evaluation, presentation-based learning.
 
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The Influence of Principals Technology Leadership and Professional Development on Teachers’ Technology Integration in Secondary Schools
1Raamani Thannimalai & Arumugam Raman
School of Education and Modern Languages Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: raamani64@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose – The aim of this study is to identify the level of Principals’ Technology Leadership and the five constructs namely Visionary Leadership, Digital Age Learning Culture, Excellence in Professional Practice, Systemic Improvement, and Digital Citizenship in schools. In addition, the relationship between Principals’ Technology Leadership and Teachers’ Technology Integration was also researched. Besides that, the effect of Professional Development as a moderator on the mentioned relationship was also investigated.
 
Methodology – Systematic random sampling was carried out to select 90 principals and 645 teachers from National Secondary Schools in Kedah in this cross-sectional survey. The Principals Technology Leadership Assessment (PTLA) which is based on National Education Technology Standards –Administrator, NETS-A (2009), and Survey of Technology Experiences’ were administered to principals, while the Learning with ICT: Measuring ICT Use in the Curriculum Instrument was administered to the teachers.
 
Findings – The study showed that there is a significant relationship between Principals’ Technology Leadership and Teachers’ Technology Integration. Furthermore, Professional Development has a significant effect on the relationship between the two variables.
 
Significance – Professional  Development  emphasising  ICT  must be carried out for school principals so that they can become technology leaders and motivate teachers to integrate technology in the classroom to prepare students as skilled workers for Industrial Revolution 4.0.
 
Keywords: Professional development, Teachers’ technological integration, Principals’ technology leadership.
 
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“I Employed My Own Strategy”: Exploring Primary Headteachers’ Organisational and Professional Socialisation
1Lokman Mohd Tahir, Aede Hatib Mustama’al@Jamal, Sanitah Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fadzli Ali, Zainudin Hassan & Mohd Zolkifli Abd. Hamid
School of Education, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: p-lokman@utm.my,

ABSTRACT
Purpose – The main purpose of this study is to explore primary headteachers’ perceptions of their professional and organisational socialisation within their novice years as school leaders. There is a lack of studies exploring primary headteachers’ socialisation within the Malaysian primary education context.
 
Methodology – A total of nine primary headteachers from three states were purposely selected and interviewed to obtain their perceptions on the professional socialisation they received before and after their appointment and the strategies that they employed within their organisational socialisation process.
 
Findings – The study revealed that the primary headteachers’ employed their own organisational socialisation strategies in order to be accepted as a new member of the school. These were relatively diverse but accorded to their school’s values and culture. However, in terms of their professional socialisation, there were various findings: some mentioned the lack of support programs while others acknowledged receiving quite helpful programmes within their initial years of headship. The findings and the implications for the improvement of primary headteachers’ socialisation are discussed.
 
Significance – This study provides supplementary literature that explores primary headteachers’ organisational and professional socialisation within the Malaysian schooling context. This study notes some practical and theoretical implications for improving the prospective headteachers’ training and their leadership development which aim to benefit the leadership qualities of future primary school leaders.
Keywords: Primary schools, headteachers, headship training.
 
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Factorial Validity and Invariance of the MUET Writing Rating Scale:  Empirical and Theoretical Correspondence
1Noor Lide Abu Kassim, Kamal J I Badrasawi, Mohd Sahari Nordin, Ainol Zubairi & Ratnawati Mohd Ashraf
Kulliyyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
1Corresponding author: noorlide@iium.edu.my
 
ABSTRACT
Purpose – The validity of any performance assessment depends substantially on the rating scale used in the assessment procedure. It delineates the theoretical construct being measured and influences how performances are judged and interpreted. This study examined the factorial validity and invariance of the rating scale used for    the assessment of the essay writing component of the Malaysian University English Test (MUET) in terms of the correspondence to empirical data and the theoretical construct of ESL writing.
 
Methodology – To determine the factorial validity of the MUET essay writing rating scale, a measurement model was developed based on the criteria description of the scale. Model-data fit was tested using CFA. The data comprised 392 essays, taken from a university English proficiency examination. Factorial invariance was tested through consecutively more restrictive models.
Results – A 3-factor structure model was found to produce the best fit to the data. Factorial invariance was tested by examining the comparability of the structure and values of parameters within the model across two groups. A more restrictive model was subsequently tested, where variances and covariances of the latent constructs together with factor loadings were constrained to be equal for the two groups. The resultant goodness-of-fit indices showed a better fit to the data, providing support for the factorial invariance of the 3-factor structure model.
 
Significance – The results support a 3-factor structure model, congruent with the theory of ESL writing. However, further validation needs to be carried out across different ESL populations to ensure accurate representation and assessment of ESL writing performance.
 
Keywords: ESL writing; factorial validity; invariance; CFA; rating scale validation.

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