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Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI) Vol. 14, No. 1 June 2017

Bui Thi Thuy Hang, Amrita Kaur & Abdul Hamid Busthami Nur
Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singh, Othman Lebar, Napisah Kepol, Rafiah Abdul Rahman & Kurotol Aini Muhammad Mukhtar
Kamal J I Badrasawi, Noor Lide Abu Kassim & Nuraihan Mat Daud
Sanit Srikoon, Tassanee Bunterm, Teerachai Nethanomsak & Tang Keow Ngang
Walton Wider, Mazni Mustapha, Murnizam Halik & Ferlis Bahari
Farukh Noor & Zahyah Hanafi
Abraham Ayebo & Charles Assuah
Napisah Kepol

1Bui Thi Thuy Hang, 2Amrita Kaur & 3Abdul Hamid Busthami Nur
1Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam
2&3School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Purpose – Student motivation for positive academic outcome and persistence at school is significantly affected by personal and environmental factors. Anchored in self-determination theory, this study tested a motivational model which looked at how support in terms of perceived teacher autonomy and from school administration constituted the key factors in explaining school climate. The study was also primarily concerned with how these crucial factors would help predict student motivation and perceived competence, and how they in turn, would affect student school performance and helped predict student drop out intentions.

Methodology – This model was tested on 277 first year vocational college students in Hanoi, Vietnam. Data was collected through a self-report questionnaire. The hypothesized relationships were tested using partial least squares (WarpPLS 3.0).

Findings – The structural model analysis carried out suggested that all the hypothesized relationships were statistically significant. Student experience of autonomy support from teachers and administrators predicted motivation and perceived competence, which in turn predicted student school performance and intentions to drop out from school.
Value – The findings and its implication were discussed in relation to the type of teacher classroom behaviour and the nature of school administration style that would be required to facilitate autonomy support for the students to enhance their motivation and helped them gain competence.

Keywords: Self-determination theory, vocational education, drop out, motivation.

1Charanjit Kaur Swaran Singh, 2Othman Lebar, 1Napisah Kepol, 3Rafiah Abdul Rahman & 3Kurotol Aini Muhammad Mukhtar
1Faculty of Languages and Communication
2Faculty of Education and Human Development
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris
3Institut Peguruan Tun Hussien Onn, Batu Pahat
Corresponding author:
Purpose – The study was aimed at exploring and analysing the current assessment practices of lecturers in selected Malaysian higher learning institution classrooms. The focus was the different modes of assessment used in the classroom and to make recommendations on using a variety of assessment modes that would be well-aligned with the intended learning outcomes.

Methodology – A qualitative approach using the descriptive case study design was employed in developing the study. Subjects of the study were selected based on a voluntary basis and 15 lecturers teaching in eight programmes from two higher learning institutions participated in the study. Classroom observation was the main method of data collection, while data analysis employed thematic analysis. Each lecturer was observed twice. Three instruments were used in data collection, namely: pre-observation form, observation form and video recordings. The data was analysed through the opencoding process. The notes in the observation forms were compiled and reviewed to identify themes.
Findings – The findings revealed that the current assessment practices of the lecturers included several modes of assessment, with oral questioning and peer assessment modes being used more frequently than others. The feedback modes employed were also varied with giving comments and correcting student answers or errors as the most common modes. The results provided evidence that besides teacher assessment, peer assessment was found to be another form of assessment favoured by the lecturers during the teaching and learning process. It was used to assess student presentations, to correct peer errors, and to give feedback.

Significance – The findings were used to guide decisions on the need for assessment training for lecturers, educators and curriculum developers regarding the types of assessment modes for incorporation in teaching and learning, and also the need for assessment training that would provide lecturers with the knowledge and confidence to use a variety of assessment modes.

Keywords: Current assessment practices, modes of assessment, peer-assessment, self-assessment, questioning.

1Kamal J I Badrasawi, 2Noor Lide Abu Kassim & 3Nuraihan Mat Daud
1Kulliyyah of Education
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
2Department of Community Nursing & Health Care for Mass
Gathering, Umm al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia &
Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic
University Malaysia and Department of Language & Literacy,
3Kulliyyah of Languages and Management
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Purpose – The study sought to determine the hierarchical nature of reading skills. Whether reading is a ‘unitary’ or ‘multi-divisible’ skill is still a contentious issue. So is the hierarchical order of reading skills. Determining the hierarchy of reading skills is challenging as item difficulty is greatly influenced by factors related to test characteristics. To examine the interaction between these factors and item difficulty, and determine the possibility of such a hierarchy, this study used the multifaceted Rasch approach.

Methodology – In this descriptive study, a 42-MCQ reading test was administered to 944 ESL lower secondary students, randomly selected from eleven Malaysian national-type schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor. These student populations were selected as the development of reading ability was considered critical at this stage of schooling. The reading test items were identified according to the following aspects: Reading Skill Areas (Interpreting information, making Inference, Understanding figurative language, Drawing conclusions, Scanning for details and Finding word meanings), Context Type (Linear and Non-Linear), and Text Type (Ads, Notice, Chart, Story extract, Short message, Poem, Short news report, Brochure, Formal letter, Conversation, Long passage and weather forecast). Applying the Many-Facet Rasch model of measurement, the study analyzed student responses to the test items with the help of FACETS, version
Findings – The findings showed that context types, skill areas, and text types differed in difficulty (p<.01), with those items that required understanding and interpretation being more demanding. Test items based on linear contexts were more difficult than those based on non-linear contexts. Understanding figurative language was found to be the most difficult skill followed by Making inference and Interpreting information. The easiest reading skill was Scanning for details, followed by Finding word meanings. The reading skill, Drawing conclusions, was close to the average difficulty level. The findings also indicated that texts that were longer and had more information tended to be more difficult.

Significance – This study has also shed new light on the theory and practice of reading. The findings support the hierarchical nature of reading skills. Different reading skills were found to exert differential cognitive demands, and those which required higher cognitive ability were more difficult for learners to acquire and perform. Understanding the hierarchy of reading skills will help language teachers to target their teaching more effectively; course designers to produce more appropriate teaching and learning materials; and test writers to develop test items that better meet students’ reading competencies.

Keywords: Reading hierarchy; reading skills; many-facet Rasch analysis; FACETS.

1Sanit Srikoon, 2Tassanee Bunterm, 3Teerachai Nethanomsak & 4Tang Keow Ngang
1-3Faculty of Education
4International College
Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen,Thailand
Corresponding author:
Purpose – The attention, working memory, and mood of learners are the most important abilities in the learning process. The importance of these abilities has led the researchers to undertake the present study. This study was concerned with the comparison of contextualized attention, working memory, and mood through a neurocognitive-based model (5P) and a conventional model (5E). It sought to examine the significant change in attention, working memory, and mood of Grade 9 students after the intervention of a neurocognitive-based model (5P) and a conventional model (5E) in an experimental group and a control group, respectively.

Methodology – A total of 76 out of 324 Grade 9 students were randomly selected from a high school located in Mahasarakham province, Thailand. A pre-test and post-test control group design was employed. The neurocognitive-based model (5P) was developed utilizing a neurocognitive-based theory and was implemented in the experiment group, while the conventional model (5E) was used in the control group. Three types of psychological tests were utilized as research instruments, namely the attention computerized battery test, the working memory computerized battery test, and the Bond-Ladder visual analogue scale. MANOVA analysis was used to analyse the effect of these instructional models on student attention, working memory, and mood in Grade 9.
Findings – The findings revealed that the overall attention, working memory, and mood conditioning mean score of the neurocognitivebased model (5P) interventions were better than in the conventional model. In conclusion, the results revealed that neurocognitive based contextualization had more effect on the attention, working memory, and mood of Grade 9 students than conventional model (5E) contextualization.

Significance – The findings have contributed significantly to current knowledge on the effectiveness of the neurocognitive-based model (5P) to enhance student learning outcomes in terms of attention, working memory and mood.

Keywords: Neurocognitive-based model (5P), conventional model (5E), attention,working memory, mood.

1Walton Wider, 2Mazni Mustapha, 3Murnizam Halik & 4Ferlis Bahari
1Faculty of Arts and Social Science
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
2-3Faculty of Psychology and Education
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
4Psychology and Social Health Research Unit
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Purpose – Building upon attachment theory and emerging theory, the current study was aimed at examining the effect of peer attachment in predicting adjustment to life in university among freshmen in a public unirvsity in East Malaysia. Furthermore, it sought to examine the influence of gender and perceived-adult status as moderators of the relationship between student attachment and student adjustment.

Methodology – Data was collected from 557 freshmen in one of the government universities in East Malaysia. Two questionnaires, namely The Inventory of Parent and Peers Attachment (IPPA) and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) were used in this study. Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was employed to examine the hypothesized relationships.

Findings – The findings of the study showed that peer trust positively influenced academic and social adjustment. Meanwhile, peer communication positively influenced social adjustment, but negatively influenced personal-emotional adjustment. Lastly, peer alienation negatively influenced personal-emotional adjustment, but positively influenced institutional attachment. The Partial Least Square - Multi Group Analysis (PLS-MGA) results indicated no significant differences in peer attachment and university adjustment across gender and perceived-adult status.

Significance – The findings of this study has empirically proven the link between attachment theory and emerging adulthood theory, providing further corroborative evidence for the argument put forth by Howes and Spieker (2008) on the alternate attachment bond during emerging adulthood period. In terms of practical benefits,, several parties who work with emerging adult clients in the Malaysian university setting will be able to benefit from the research findings, particularly counsellors and academicians.

Keywords: Emerging adulthood, peer attachment, university adjustment, gender, perceived adult status.

Farukh Noor & Zahyah Hanafi
School of Education and Modern Languages
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Purpose – Academic achievement of students can be fostered and improved if they learn to apply emotional intelligence in their emerging adulthood. The core objective of this research is to test the relationship between emerging adulthood and academic achievement by taking emotional intelligence as a mediator.

Methodology – The sample is comprised of 90 students from Islamia University Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan between the ages 18-25 years. Emerging adulthood characteristics are measured by using the Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA), emotional intelligence is measured by using Bar-On EQ-i and academic achievement is measured by Grade Point Average (GPA). Partial least square based structural equational modeling technique (PLS-SEM) is applied to analyze the data.

Findings – The findings show a significant relationship among all the variables in the study and emotional intelligence fully mediates the relationship between emerging adulthood and academic achievement to show that academic achievement of students can be enhanced if they can apply emotional intelligence skills and abilities in their emerging adulthood.
Significance – The focus of this study is the role of emotional intelligence in mediating the relationship between emerging adulthood and academic achievement. The study would also be valuable for academic institutions to capitalize emotional intelligence to reduce emotional issues among students and attain higher academic achievement and performance.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence (EI), emerging adulthood (EAH), academic achievement (AA), partial least square (PLS).

1Abraham Ayebo & 2Charles Assuah
1Department of Mathematics, North Dakota State University,
Fargo, United States
2Department of Education, University of Education
Winneba, Ghana
Corresponding author:
Purpose – This paper presents the results of a study that sought to determine teacher conceptions of classroom management and control. The study explored classroom management knowledge of participants, and how the knowledge was gained. It also investigated the extent to which participants held various conceptions, including rule-based, dominance and nurturance conceptions, about how teachers established and maintained classroom control.

Methodology – A mixed method involving a rating scale for the quantitative component, and response to open-ended interview questions for the qualitative component were used. The responses from the subjects were recorded, and notes were also taken. The data were first transcribed and double-checked for grammatical errors. The methods used to identify emerging common themes across respondents were the constant comparison and analytic induction methods.

Findings – The major finding of the study was that rule-based conceptions were predominant. In their responses to open-ended questions, virtually all teachers mentioned rule-based conceptions, especially the consistent setting and monitoring of rules as being important to the teacher’s ability to be in control of the class. The alternative conceptions of dominance and nurturance were expressed by a few of the teachers. Even teachers who showed agreement with  either the dominance or nurturance conceptions showed strong support for rule-based conceptions
Significance – The significance of this study to classroom practice is that knowing how to manage the classroom is one of the most important traits of quality instruction. Therefore it is important that teachers – both new and veteran –find the best way to manage their classroom in order to create a serene atmosphere for quality learning to take place.

Keywords: Classroom management; effective teaching; teacherperceptions; classroom management awareness; classroom control.

Napisah Kepol
Faculty of Languages and Communication
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss one of the strategies in the latest Malaysian language education policy Memartabatkan Bahasa Malaysia Memperkukuh Bahasa Inggeris (MBMMBI) (To Uphold Bahasa Malaysia and to Strengthen the English Language). The strategy in focus is aimed at improving the quality of English language teachers. This strategy is examined in light of selected research findings and other information that is deemed relevant to a beneficial discussion of the topic.

Methodology – The method employed was document analysis which involved intensive reading of the Malaysian Ministry of Education information booklets about the MBMMBI policy and other related documents and resources providing supplementary information about the policy.

Findings – The analysis showed that of the five sub-strategies proposed in the main strategy targeted at improving the quality of English language teachers, three of them addressed the commonly included aspects of knowledge, skills and abilities found in the definitions of teacher quality in the literature. Teacher disposition and evaluation, another two aspects often related to teacher quality, were not included.
Conclusion – Quality was not featured consistently in the policy strategy analysed. Overall, the policy did not capture the full complexity of the concept of teacher quality. Whether the omission of the other attributes of teacher quality has had any effect on the  aspirations of the policy remained to be seen. Follow-up strategies were suggested such as monitoring, evaluation, reinforcement, and support strategies to ensure that the policy in practice would have the desired impact as envisaged by the policy makers.
Significance – The quality of teachers has frequently been linked to student achievement in schools. This association between teacher quality and student achievement provides reason for an examination and discussion of the topic of research conducted in this paper. It is also hoped that this paper will provide some impetus for further discussions of English language teacher quality in the current Malaysian educational context.

Keywords: Language education policy, strategy, English language teachers, teacher quality.

Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee Abdullah & Leow Tze Wei
Faculty of Science and Mathematics
Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
Corresponding author:
Tujuan – Membina satu instrumen untuk menilai murid membolehkan murid Tingkatan Dua membuat penilaian kendiri ke atas pembelajaran geometri dan menentukan kesahan kandungan dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen berkenaan.

Metodologi – Pembinaan instrumen adalah berpandukan Model Penilaian Konteks-Input-Proses-Produk (KIPP). Kajian ini melibatkan tiga fasa iaitu, kajian literatur, pembinaan instrumen kajian dan analisis kesahan kandungan dan kebolehpercayaan instrumen. Instrumen yang dibina adalah berbentuk rubrik dua lapis. Jadual Spesifikasi Instrumen digunakan dalam proses pembinaan item-item penilaian. Kemudian kesahan item disemak oleh panel pakar berkenaan. Data kuantitatif yang dikumpul dari kajian rintis dan kajian sebanar dianalisis dengan menentukan nilai pekali Cronbach Alpha. Pembinaan item merujuk kepada takrifan konstruk berasaskan kajian literatur. Kajian literatur menunjukkan terdapat lima konstruk iaitu, pengetahuan sedia ada murid, kefahaman murid dalam geometri, gaya pembelajaran murid, sikap pembelajaran murid serta pendekatan pengajaran guru. Sebanyak 79 item telah dibangunkan dalam instrumen ini. Kesemua lima panel pakar  dalam bidang Pendidikan Matematik bersetuju bahawa instrumen yang dibina mempunyai kesahan kandungan yang boleh diterima. Untuk menentukan pekali kebolehpercayaan instrumen, kajian ini telah dilaksanakan di tiga buah sekolah menengah dalam daerah Kuala Kangsar, Perak. Seramai 400 orang murid Tingkatan Dua dipilih sebagai sampel kajian. Perisian Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS versi 20) digunakan untuk menganalisis data yang diperoleh daripada hasil kajian.
Dapatan – Kajian rintis dan kajian sebenar telah dijalankan dalam kajian ini. Tujuannya adalah untuk melihat kestabilan nilai Cronbach Alpha yang diperoleh melalui kajian rintis dan kajian sebenar. Bagi menentukan sama ada item yang dibina diterima atau disingkirkan, penyelidik membuat perbandingan nilai Cronbach Alpha jika item disingkirkan (Alpha If Item Deleted) bagi setiap item dengan nilai Cronbach Alpha bagi konstruk yang terlibat dalam instrumen tersebut. Selain itu, nilai Cronbach Alpha yang diperoleh daripada kedua-dua kajian diinterpretasi berdasarkan Jadual Nilai Kebolehpercayaan. Kebolehpercayaan Cronbach Alpha bagi kelima-lima konstruk dalam kajian rintis berada antara 0.722 dan 0.945. Manakala, kebolehpercayaan Cronbach Alpha bagi kelimalima konstruk dalam kajian sebenar berada antara 0.813 dan 0.940. Tambahan pula, nilai keseluruhan Cronbach Alpha instrumen penilaian bagi kajian rintis dan kajian sebenar masing-masing menunjukkan 0.955 dan 0.946 yang berada pada tahap amat baik.
Signifikan – Penghasilan instrumen penilaian kendiri pembelajaran geometri yang berpandukan Model KIPP dapat membantu murid mengetahui tahap penguasaannya terhadap topik-topik geometri yang dipelajari dan berusaha untuk membaiki kelemahan dalam pembelajaran mereka. Instrumen penilaian ini juga boleh dijadikan sebagai sumber rujukan guru dalam membantu perancangan strategi pembelajaran dan pengajaran topik geometri yang lebih berkesan. Instrumen penilaian kendiri ini boleh dijadikan sebagai panduan bagi melihat sejauh manakah hasil pembelajaran topik Geometri Tingkatan Satu telah tercapai dengan optimum bersesuaian dengan sasaran dan tujuan pembelajaran itu sendiri.

Kata kunci: Instrumen penilaian kendiri, pembelajaran geometri, kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan, pendidikan matematik.